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13-Ved, Saam-Devtaa

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13-Ved, Saam-Devtaa
See also    Vaidik Devtaa;   Devtaa in Ved;   Devtaa in Rig Ved

Here are given some of the Devtaa addressed in Saam Ved including other Ved too. They are taken from Saam Ved Annex.

Aaditya Gan
Aaditya gan are the sons of Dev Maataa Aditi. Rig Ved, 2.27.1 mentions 6 Aaditya; 9.114.3 mentions 7 Aaditya; and 10.72.8 mentions 8 Aaditya. But in Puraan 12 Aaditya are mentioned. Their names are - Dhaataa, Mitra, Aryamaa, Pooshaa, Shakra, Varun, Bhag, Twashtaa, Vivaswaan, Savitaa, Anshumaan, and Vishnu.

Aditi's mention is made due to her sons Aaditya. She is known as the mother of Varun, Mitra, Aryamaa etc. Her dwelling place is limitless Antariksh where 12 Aaditya wander around.

Agni or Pavamaan
Agni means which goes upward. Agni is the root basis of Vaidik Yagya process and is local Dev. Among all Vaidik Dev, Agni's place is next to Indra. Rig Ved, 1.1.1 Agni is called Purohit (Agnimeele Purohitam...). Approximately 200 Sookt pray Agni. Agni has three dwelling places and three chief forma - (1) Sun in sky, (2) lightening in Antariksh, and (3) fire on Prithvi. At some places Pavamaan word is used for Agni.

Ashwinee Kumaar
When Sangyaa, Soorya's wife, took the form of the horse, they were born at that time as a twins. they are the Vaidya (traditional doctors) of Devtaa. they are Vaidik Aakaasheeya Devtaa. They are related to Ushaa. They are helpful in emergencies, do wonders, truth speakers, and heal physical diseases.

Indra is the most popular Devtaa. Almost 300 Sookt mention Indra's name. Indra has been said a twin brother of Agni. he is the Devtaa of Antariksh (horizon). His adjectives are - Vritrahantaa (killer of Vritra), Vajree (who owns Vajra), Vishwa Charshani etc.

Marud Gan
Marud gan have been mentioned several times in Rig Ved in the context of the Devtaa of Vaayu and storm. Marut's mother is Prashni. Theiy have been mentioned in 33 Richaa in Rig Ved. Marud Gan are the Devtaa of storm. Their nature is storm, lightning, etc. When Indra killed Vritraasur, only they helped him to kill him. At that time Indra searched for his help beyond his own Mandal (world) in Rudra Mandal, because of being the Gan of Rudra they are called as Rudriya. Marut Devtaa are born from the laughter of lightening. They are the sons of Aakaash (sky), brother of Aakaash. They create darkness also along with clouds.

Parjanya is the name of a Vaidik Devtaa. Rig Ved Devtaa are classified in three types of Devtaa - Paarthiv, Vaayaveeya, Aakaasheeya. Parjanya is a Vaayaveeya Devtaa. Parjanya is also the giver of rains like Dyau and Varun. Rig Ved says that Prithvi is mother and Parjanya is father. He produces and nourishes herbs and trees and help them to grow and flower. If he takes care properly, trees give lots of flowers and fruits.

Pavamaan Som
This term is used for Som in Rig Ved. Som becomes pure and clean after strained through a sieve. In other Sanhitaa its meaning is Vaayu (which blows). Its word meaning is Pravahamaan - purifier or being purified. Who sings Saam special verses at the time of Jyotishtom Yagya, those special verses are also called Pavamaan. According to Savan, they are of three types  - Bahishpavamaan, Madhyadin Pavamaan, Aarbhav Pavamaan. At some places Pavamaan word has been used for Vaayu also.

Pooshaa is a chief Devtaa of Rig Ved. He is related to nourishment (Poshan). He looks after everybody. Aj draw his chariot. He is closely related to Soorya. Pooshan word has been used in Rig Ved approximately 120 times. According to Saankhya his status is a bit higher then Vishnu.

In Ved Saraswatee is regarded as a Devee. She gives piety, purity, prosperity and power. She is related to other Devtaa - Pooshaa, Indra, Marud Gan. A few Sookt relates her with Yagya Devtaa Idaa and Bhaaratee. She is the Devee of learning and arts. According to Puraan she is the daughter of Brahmaa Jee.

Savitaa is an inspirational power. He comes under Dyu Lok and Antariksh Devtaa. According to Saayan, just before sunrise there is Savitaa; and after the sunrise it is Soorya. Rig Ved's 11 Sookt pray to Savitaa Devtaa alone. He is one of the Aaditya Devtaa. Gayatri or Savitri Mantra (Rig Ved, 3.62.10) is addressed to him only.

It is very incomplete to do personification of Som in the form of Devtaa. Only his those characteristics are mentioned which are general in all Devtaa. Indra does all the jobs of bravery by the power of Som. Som is rthe Lord of directions and producer of Dyaavaa and Prithvi.

In Rig Ved, 1.115.1, Soorya is a chief Devtaa among all Devtaa. His Devatwa (effect) is most at the time of noon. Ved describes Soorya in a very lively way. Soorya in reality is the Aakaasheeya form of Fire element. He destroys the Raakshas who live in darkness. He counts the days. Soorya himself is the guardian of the constitution of the Universe. His cycle follows regularly unchangeably according to the universal law. He is the center of the Universe and he is the soul of all movable and immovable.

Twashtaa comes in class of dimly lit Devtaa. Rig Ved mentions his name approximately 65 times. No description of his any body part is available other than his arm and hand. He is very skilled and create many things with his skills.

Ushaa has been described as a Devee of beauty. Her main characteristic is her woman-like attraction. Ved's 21 Richaa mention her name.

Vaidik Devtaa are divided in three categories - Paarthiv, Vaayaveeya, Aakaasheeya. Vaayu has a synonym Vaat. Vaat also has three forms - blowing leaves and dust, rain producing, blowing with rains. Indra and Vaayu Dev are a pair of Devtaa. Rishi knew that Vaayu is the life giver. It is essential for health and life force.

Varun is a chief Devtaa. He is the king of all Lok (worlds) - Rig Ved, 5.85.3. he is the king of all mortals and immortals. He is the chief Aaditya. he is normally mentioned along with Mitra. Mitra is supposed the Devtaa of day and Varun is supposed to the Devtaa of night. Varun induce diseases also to warn about sins and to punish. Whatever Varun says that is Dharm. There are many Stuti (prayers) in Ved to please Varun.

Vishnu means which is spread all around, He is the owner of the whole Universe. He is Vishnu because He is the master of all powers. Shankaraachaarya has written a commentary on Vishnu Sahastra Naam. Vishnu's one name is Hari which means remover of sins and sorrows. Brahm Yogee has explained in Kali Santaaran Upanishad (2.1.215) in his commentary that Hari is He who removes A-Gyaan and its consequences. His other name is Shesh-shaayee. When Vishnu sleeps, the whole universe falls in a sleeping state. The remaining waking element is "Shesh" (Remains) which flows on the water by coiling itself. Vishnu is called Naaraayan - means who lives in water; and its another meaning is the dwelling place (Ayan) of all human beings (Nar).

Vishwe Devaa
Wherever the need arose to gather all Devtaa together they were named as Vishwe Devaa. They have a special place in Yagya.They are invoked as the representatives of all Devtaa, lest any Devtaa remains to get his share of the Yagya. Sometimes they are invoked along with Aaditya a or Vasu. Their number is 13.


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Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 03/20/13