Sketches-2 also for many other sketches
Here is the list of the many general
people who have appeared in this website. sketches ---
[Adapted from 1911encyclopedia.org]
Abul Fazal, the Vazeer and historiographer of the
great Mugal emperor Akbar, was born in the year A.D. 1551. His career as a
Minister of State, would probably have been forgotten by this time had he
himself not left its record in his celebrated history. The Akbar Naamaa, or
Book of Akbar, as Abul Fazal's chief literary work, written in Persian is
called, consists of two parts - first being a complete history of Akbar's
reign and the second, entitled Aaeeney Akbaree, or Institutes of Akbar, being
an account of the religious and political constitution and administration of
the empire. The style is singularly elegant, and the contents of the second
part possess a unique and lasting interest. An excellent translation of the
Aaeeney Akbaree by Francis Gladwin was published in Calcutta, 1783-1786. It
was reprinted in London very inaccurately, and copies of the original edition
are now exceedingly rare and correspondingly valuable. It was also translated
by Professor Blockmann in 1848. Abul Fazal was assassinated, while returning
from a mission to the Deccan in 1602. The murderer was instigated by Prince
Saleem, later Jahaangeer, who had become jealous of the Minister's influence.
(690-610 BC) He was the author of Vedaant Sootra, also called Brahm Sootra. The
philosophy of the Upanishad
began to be called as Vedaant as a result of this book. This book has been
written in the style of "Sootra" (aphorisms) which are so abbreviated
that they have become abstruse. Aadi
Shankar, Raamaanuj, and
Madhwa are the three great interpreters
of this Vedaant Sootra propagating their own theories of A-Dwaitvaad (non-Dualism),
Vishisht A-Dwait (Qualified non-Dualism) and Dwait (Dualism) respectively.
Baadaraayan, claimed to have written
a commentary on genuine Upanishad produced during the 600-700 BC. His claim is only
partly justified, because he has included his own ideas too in that. Shankar, Raamaanuj
and Madhwa also claimed that they were interpreting the scriptural Upanishad with the
help of Baadaraayan's Vedaant Sootra, but they also added their ideas too on the
relationship of Supreme Soul, Individual Soul and Man. They differ with each other.
The most popular commentary on Vedaant Sootra is that of Baladev.
[Aangiras, p 245]
Baan Bhatt (Poet)
(570-650 AD) Name of a Sanskrit scholar and a poet who wrote "Harshcharit"
and "Kaadambaree". See
Harshvardhan. He was the court poet in Harshvardhan's court during the period of
606-647 AD. Harshcharit is the biography of Harsh Vardhan and Kaadambaree is a novel.
He could not complete the novel, so his son Bhushan Bhatt completed it. This latter
part is known as Uttar Bhaag. He has two other works in his name - "Chandikaa-
shatak" and a drama entitled "Paarvatee Parinaya".
He was the son of Chitrabhaanu and
Raajdevee and was born in Preetikoot village situated on the banks of Hiranyabaahu
River (present day Son River). He came from a Vaatsyaayan Braahman family. He lost
his parents by the age of fourteen, so he wandered around for some time but came back
to his village again. A cousin of King Harsh Vardhan spotted him out and arranged a
meeting with Harsh. Later the King showed him much favor. After returning from the
King's court, his cousins pressed him to write the biography of the King. Although he
was not sure that he could do justice with his biography, still he wrote something about
his life. It is said about his Kaadambaree that whoever read Kaadambaree forget to eat
(220-140 BC) The earliest drama writer of Sanskrit language famous for his dramas
"Swapn Vaasavdattaa" and "Pratigyaa Yaugandharaayan" and for his
Bhaaskaraachaarya See also
(1060-1140 AD) A great mathematician and astronomer who created several theorems
of Algebra and wrote a book on astronomy "Siddhaant Shiromani". The
chapter entitled "Leelaavatee", named after his brilliant daughter,
deals with the theorems of Arithmetic, and the chapter entitled "Beejganit"
gives the theorems of Algebra for the first time in the world.. In the chapter on
Astronomy, he states that the Earth is round like a ball and it has gravitational
attraction, another first statement of its kind.
see also Bhartrihari
(710-790 AD or 570-630 AD) Author of the play titled "Venee Sanhaar".
This is the first literary composition other than Brahm Vaivart Puraan, in which
Raadhaa is a character.
(570-630 AD) Name of a poet who wrote "Bhattee Kaavya" named after its
author. Its theme is the killing of Raavan by Shree Raam. It is very famous and
influenced Dandin to write "Kaavyaadarsh" (see Dandin below).
Bhavabhooti (Drama Writer)
(660-740 AD) A Sanskrit drama writer. He wrote "Mahaaveer Charit" and
"Uttar Raam Charit" (dealing with the life of Raam). His "Maalatee
Maadhav" is a romantic drama somewhat like Romeo and Juliet.
(c 800-1055 AD) A famous king who was a great patron of art and
literature. He wrote over 20 books including "Saraswatee Kantaabharan".
(301-269 BC) He was the son of Chandragupt Maurya, and his son was Ashok the Great.
Buddha (Prophet of Bauddh)
see also Gautam Buddha
A name of Dynasty of Kings in Bhaarat.
Even though both Jainism and Buddhism are partly atheistic in their
doctrines, the name of Chakravaak stands out among those who were
completely atheistic in their beliefs. (1) He denied the authority of Ved
- the Hindu scriptures. (2) He denied that there is individual soul which
is reborn. According to him, this life was the only life and it ends with
the death of the person. (3) He denied the existence of God. He said that
those who say that there is God who is almighty, have not proved God and
are looking for their own interest in propagating the idea of God. The
best way was to enjoy this life the most you can and however you can,
because this was the only truth.
[Aangiras, p 133]
Chaitanya Mahaaprabhu (Saint)
Chandeedaas (Devotional Poet)
(1) Devotee of Durgaa. (2) A Bangaalee devotional poet.
Chandragupt Maurya (King)
(c 317 BC) King in India around 317 BC. The founder King of Gupt Dynasty around
320 AD. He defeated the Greek King Seleukas of Syria and established his empire
from Eeraan to Bangaal. Read also
Chandragupt II (King)
(c 370 AD) He was the King around 370 AD. He was the grandson of Chandragupt I. It
is believed that later he was called as Chandragupt Vikramaaditya - Read also
(c 1050-960 BC) Name of a physician who wrote the treatise on medicine called Charak Sanhitaa.
(1) Observer. (2) Name of the horse of Raanaa Prataap of Raajasthaan, India.
Name of people and a kingdom that existed in the region which later became
south-western UP (Bundel Khand).
Cleopatra (Foreign Queen)
Cyrus, The Great (Foreign King)
Dhanvantari (Traditional Doctor)
Physician of ancient times. Later many physicians adopted this term as their title.
It is said that Dhan Teras (2 days before Deepaavalee) is the Dhanvantari day.
Eeshwar Chandra Vidyaasaagar
Shatapath Braahman tells that King Maadhav and his Priest Gotam Raahoogan
colonized Videh (Bihaar). Before their times no Aarya ruler or Rishi had crossed
River Sadaaneeraa (Gandakee). Videh area was a forest, part of which was burnt
down to make room for human colonies. Thus Maadhav was the first king and Gotam
Raahoogan was the first royal Priest of Videh Kingdom. He was the author of some
best-known hymns of Rig Ved.
[Aangiras, p 127]
Guhai Namashivaaya (Saint)
Guru Namashivaaya (Saint)
see also Sikh Dharm
(1469-1539). Originally named Naanak, and
popularly known as Guru Naanak. He was a great devotee of Raam. He wrote Kabeer like
poems. Most of his writings are in early form of Hindi.
(c 1260-1320) A religious writer of Maraathee language. Famous for the authorship
of "Gyaaneshwaree" - a translation and commentary on
Bhagvad Geetaa. In his
commentary, he has included lots of parables and made it very interesting. It has
been translated into several Indian languages and helped to spread Geetaa's
see also History, BC 2300-500
(506-647 BC) A famous king with
capital at Kannauj. He brought almost entire Northern India under his rule.
He wrote some dramas also.
Jaayasee, Malik Muhammad (Poet)
(1550-1610 AD) A great contributor to Hindi poetry, wrote "Padmaavat" -
an epic on the life of a Raajpoot princess Padmaavatee.
Kabeer Daas (Saint)
Kanak Daas (Sain)
Kaurav see also Paandav
The descendents of King Dhritraashtra.
He had 100 sons, Duryodhan being the eldest, and one daughter Dushalaa. As
Dhritraashtra, the eldest son of King Vichitraveerya, was blind, Paandu inherited
the kingdom of Hastinaapur, but died young. His eldest son Yudhishthir was only
12 years old at that time, so he had to wait until he came of age of becoming the
King. In the meantime Paandu's elder brother Dhritraashtra became the regent.
His son Duryodhan did not want to give kingdom to Paandav, so he had to play many
tricks to kill them and to keep them away from the kingdom, but in the end he had
to fight. This war was called Mahaabhaarat War (or Kurukshetra War). 18 Akshauhinee
army plus took part, only 8 people remained alive - 5 Paandav, Ashwatthaamaa,
Kripaachaarya and Yuyutsu - all others died.
Kumaaril Bhatt (Poet)
He lived during 950-1050 AD between Aanand Vardhan in the 9th century and
Abhinavgupt in the 10th century and was a contemporary of Raajshekhar. Kuntak
was a Kashmeeree Sanskrit poet who is remembered for his
Vakrokti Jeevitam, in which he
postulates Vakrokti principles. Kuntak anticipates much of the modern stylistic
approach to literature and his stylistics encompasses imaginative language
at the micro and macro levels. The conscious choices made by the poet in the
language is a fertile field of investigation in his approach. It is the
considered view of Kuntak that poetic language always deviates from hacken
eyed expressions by its imaginative turns. Kuntak avers that the stamp of
originality of a great author will be present even in the title of the work
Lakshmee Baaee (Queen) see also
(1828-1858 AD) Raanee of Jhaansee. She was one of last sovereigns to wage
war against the British to expel them. One year after the great war of
Independence in 1857 AD and decisive defeat of Indians by British, she
still held on to her kingdom and did not surrender it until a fierce battle
took place. In 1858 she sent out a circular to all kings to join together to
expel British because England had brought into India a number of Christian
missionaries who were a serious danger to Hindu religion and culture. She
fought very bravely defending her freedom and died.
Her original name was Manikarnikaa.
She learned to read, write and debate, riding horse and use of weapons while
playing with her adopted brothers. She accepted the name Lakshmee Baaee when
she married to Gangaadhar Raav, the Mahaaraajaa of Jhaansee. Once she escaped
defending her kingdom and came to Gwaaliyar, but here also British attacked
and surrounded her forcing her to jump from a cliff and die. She is alive in
the poem of Subhadraa Kumaaree Chauhaan's - "Khoob Ladee Mardaanee voh
to Jhaansee Vaalee Ranee thee".
LIVING PERIOD OF SOME SAINTS
Chaitanya Mahaaprabhu - 1486-1533 AD
Dayaanand Saraswati - 1824-1886 AD
Madhwaachaarya - 1236-1300 AD
Naanak - 1469-1538 AD
Raamkrishn Paramhans - 1836-1886 AD
Raamaanujaachaarya - 1057-1137 AD
Shankaraachaarya - 806-838 AD
Tulasee Daas - 1527-1610 AD
Maadhav was the brother of Saayan (see below) who wrote the well-know commentary on Rig Ved.
Both flourished in 14th century.
Maan Singh (Politician)
Madhwa or Madhwaachaarya (Saint)
Mahaaveer Jain (Prophet of Jain)
see also Jain Dharm
(940-860 BC) The author of Aitareya
Braahman. According to Chhaandogya Upanishad (3-16-7), Maheedaas is said to
have lived for 116 years. Aitareya Braahmna was perhaps the first work which
discussed the need for political organization and for democratically electing
a ruler. The criterion for choosing was the ability of the person to lead.
Malook Daas (Poet)
(1574-1642 AD) A radical contributor to Hindi thoughts. He was like Kabeer
Daas in his rational thinking and wrote poetry emphasizing ethics. He
opposed self-torture and self-suppression as a way of pleasing God. He has
written many Dohaa, like Kabeer Daas Jee. One of his Dohaa is - "Ajagar
Kare na Chaakaree Panchee kare na Kaam; Daas Malokaa kaha Gaye sab ke
Mandan Mishra (Philosopher)
A South Indian saint.
(317-180 BC) A Dynasty founded by Chandragupt Maurya who was not born in a
royal family. He was actually a homeless young man who had no resources to
begin with. He eventually created a kingdom which not only included almost
all of India but also entire Afagaanistaan. The north-west region of his
kingdom was being ruled by Greek successors of Alexander. He defeated
them. As a result Seleukas, the Greek king of Syria gave his daughter to
him in marriage and surrendered the whole of Afagaanistaan territory to
him. Ashok, one of greatest Hindu kings belonged to Maurya Dynasty. He got
converted to Buddhism and spread it in the whole India and abroad sending
by his sister Sanghmitraa.
Meeraa Baaee (Queen and Devotional Poet)
Aangiras gives her dates as 1505-1575 AD, while Wikipedia gives her dates
as 1498-1547. Born in a Raathaur family in Naagaur District, she was the
wife of a Raajpoot King Raanaa Kumbhaa (or Raanaa Bhoj Raaj, the eldest son
of Raanaa Saangaa?) of Chittaud
Garh. She was a great devotee of Shree Krishn so she refused to worship
the family Deity Durgaa. She neglected her responsibilities also so she had
to face many hardships. Meeraa became a widow while very young. She refused
to become Satee as was the tradition in those times in Raajpoot families. After
the death of her husband her husband's younger brother became the King, because
Meeraa and her husband did not have a son. This brother-in-law of Meeraa did not
like Meeraa to become a poet and so tormented her in various ways. When Meeraa
did not give up her way of life, it is said that he sent a cup of poison for
her to drink. She is said to have drunk that poison and Lord Krishn is said to
have protected her from harm. She has composed many beautiful devotional songs
which have remained popular forever. She left the palace at the age of 30 and
went to Mathuraa, Vrindaa Van and finally to Dwaarakaa. It is believed that she
became one with Krishn, because she was found entering the Krishn Temple in Dwaarakaa
singing in a state of ecstasy, then the temple's door was shut behind her. When the
door was opened her Saaree was found around the Vigraha of Krishn.
Muhammad (Prophet of Islam)
The story of Nachiketaa is told in
Kath Upanishad. He was Aaruni's son. Once Aaruni gave away everything he had.
Giving away everything away he asked his father - "Father, To whom will you
give me?" Father ignored his question a few times but when the son continued
to ask him, he angrily said - "I will you to Yam Raaj." The son took it
seriously and headed on to the abode of dead persons. There Yam Raaj was away, so
he waited for him three days without eating and drinking. When Yam Raaj came he
asked him to ask for three Var (boons) in exchange of spending three days unattended.
One of them he asked from Yam Raaj to teach him wisdom about the soul, and Yam Raaj
imparted that knowledge to him.
Naminandi Adikal (Bhakt)
A Dynasty started by King Mahaapadm Nand in 357 BC with his capital in
Magadh. This Nand extended his empire far and wide. Greek travelers have
described the Indians of that time tall and slim who hardly ever fell
sick. They were ,long-lived, even up to the age of 130.
Narasinh Varmaa I (King)
(c 650 AD). A King who created the town of Mahaabalipuram and had Rath Temples
erected there around 650 AD./font>
Narasinh Varmaa II (King)
(Early 8th century AD). A King of early 8th century AD who constructed Kailaashnaath
and Airaavateshwar temples of Kaancheepuram and the sea-coast temple of Mahaabalipuram.
Nehru, Jawahar Lal
The descendents of King Paandu, specifically his 5 sons - Yudhishthir,
Bheem, Arjun, Nakul and Sahadev. As Dhritraashtra, the eldest son of King
Vichitraveerya, was blind, Paandu inherited the kingdom of Hastinaapur,
but died young. His eldest son Yudhishthir was only 12 years old at that
time, so he had to wait until he came of age of becoming the King. In the
meantime Paandu's elder brother Dhritraashtra became the regent. His son
Duryodhan did not want to give kingdom to Paandav, so they had to fight
for their rights. In that Mahaabhaarat War (or Kurukshetra War) 18
Akshauhinee army plus took part, only 7 people remained alive - 5 Paandav,
Ashwatthaamaa and Kripaachaarya - all died.
(550-460 BC). Paanini was, and remains to be, the most authoritative writer of
a complete book of Sanskrit grammar. His book "Ashtaadhyaayee" (literally
Eight Chapters) is written in extremely concise style, called Sootra, which is very
difficult to follow but this style was the only way when facilities for writing were
not available so freely, and everything had to be memorized. His book contains 3,996
Sootra. He formalized the rules of Sandhi, something similar to but more complicated
than "liaison" in French language. During the next two centuries two great
grammarians contributed to Panini. Kaatyaayan wrote "Vaartik" and Patanjali
wrote "Mahaabhaashya" (an elaborate commentary of Ashtaadhyaayee). He not
only supplemented Paanini but also supplemented it and in some places modified it. It
is the Ashtaadhyaayee along with Mahaabhaashya became the final word in Sanskrit grammar.
Any deviation from it is sinful.
Paanini was a Gaandhaar (Afagaan),
born near Peshaavar (now in Paakistaan). In his times these regions were very much
a part of Aaryan civilization and were perhaps half Hindu and half Buddhist.
[Aangiras, p 218]
(1) (c 309-310 BC). The founder of the Yog branch of philosophy.
(2) (c 150 BC). The author of "Mahaabhaashya", a commentary on Paanini's
book "Ashtaadhyaayee" on Sanskrit grammar. This commentary not only explained
Paanini but also modified some of its rules.
[Aangiras, p 210]
Name of a King.
A king of the Kosal Desh.
Prataap, Mahaaraanaa (King)
Prataap succeeded to the throne of Mevaad in Raajasthaan in the year 1572
AD. When almost all other Raajpoot chiefs had surrendered to the Mugal
King Akbar by marrying their sister or daughter to him; Mahaaraanaa Prataap
stood alone, brave and proud to defy Akbar. He decried other Raajpoot chiefs
for their cowardice and especially to marry their sisters or daughters to a
Muslim. One of them was Raajaa Maansingh who married his sister Jodhaabaaee
and she became the chief queen of Akbar and was the mother of Jahaangeer -
the heir of the Mugal throne. It is said that Raajaa Maansingh sought an
interview and dinner with Mahaaraanaa Prataap, but Prataap did not show up
until the humiliated Maansingh was ready to leave. The parting message of
Maansingh was that this insult will cost Mahaaraanaa Prataap dearly. Then
in the famous battle of Haldee Ghaatee, Akbar's army led by Maansinh defeated
Mahaaraanaa Prataap. It s said that when he died he had 80 marks of battle
wounds on his body. He had a horse named "Chetak".
Prithveeraaj Chauhaan (King)
He ruled in Raajasthaan during the late 12th century AD. He is famous for
two reasons -
(1) He was a great lover. He
and the daughter of the Kannauj King Jayachand, Sanyogitaa, fell in love
with each other. As Jayachand was against this marriage, Prithviraaj got
succeeded in abducting her and marrying her. He took her from her Swayamvar
when her father stood his iron statue at the gate of the hall (showing his
insult to him). Sanyogitaa put her Jayamaalaa (garland used to choose husband)
in the neck of that iron statue of Prithveeraaj. As she did that, Prithveeraaj
who was hiding behind it, came out and took her to his horse and ran away with
her on his horse. This was the beginning of his troubles.
(2) He was a valiant warrior.
Jayachand could not face Prithveeraaj, so he asked Shaahbuddeen Gauree of
Gazanee to defeat Prithveeraaj. Gauree attacked Prithveeraaj and suffered a
great defeat. Prithveeraaj let him go in his kindness. But this did not prove
good to him Gauree organized a sudden attack on him within a year and defeated
him. Prithveeraaj was taken a prisoner and was taken to Gazanee where his eyes
were mercilessly burnt with red hot steel bar to make him blind. After a lapse
of time Prithveeraaj asked for and was granted for the audience in the court of
Gauree to show his archery skills. Gauree did not know that Prithveeraaj could
aim at the sound also (Shabd-Vedhee Vaan). So he was given the permission.
Prithveeraaj had a person in Gauree's court to tell him where Gauree was sitting.
So as he got ready to aim, he sang a short verse telling the location of Gauree's
throne. Prithveeraaj immediately aimed at him and killed him in his court. A Poet
Chandravardaaee has written an eulogy on Prithveeraaj and has described this incident
beautifully. It is not known that history confirms it.
[Aangiras, p 229]
He was the commander-in-chief of the last Maurya king Brihadrath of Magadh. The army
was with him so he killed Brihadrath and became the king himself. He defeated the Greek
invaders and expelled them from the country. He was a Braahman and he established the
Patanjali, the author of Mahaabhaashya and Yog, was his contemporary and was the
royal priest of Pushyamitra. His kingdom was up to the area what later became
Raam Mohan Raaya, Raajaa (Social Reformer)
(1772-1833) He was the founder of Brahm Samaaj. He abolished the Satee Prathaa.
(1360-1440 AD) One of the early composers of Hindi poetry and founder of a
Hindu sect. His writing influenced Kabeer and Guru Naanak's writings. He
had several disciples - Kabeer,
Naam Dev, Rankan-Yankanaa (Raankaa-Baankaa),
Narasee Mehtaa and
Their stories are given in Gita Press "Bhakt Charitaank" in detail.
see also Darshan
(1057-1137 AD) Name of the founder of Vishisht A-Dwaitvaad (Qualified Non-Dualism).
Raamdaas (Saint) see
Raamkrishn Paramhans (Saint)
Raidaas (Devotional Poet)
(1400-1460 AD) Name of a devotional poet, born in a cobbler family which was
considered a very low caste. He became the inspiration for one of the greatest
poetess of all time - Meeraa Baaee.
Sai Baabaa, Shiradee
(1320-1410 AD) He was a famous commentator of all four Ved. He was the
brother of Maadhavaachaarya (later
Vidyaaranya), the Prime Minister of the King of Vijayanagar.
Both brothers were great scholars and the King is said to have sanctioned
a huge budget for them to attract scholars from all over and accomplish
works of religion and philosophy. Saayan's commentary "Vedaarth Prakaash"
on Rig Ved, is considered to be the best of its kind.
Samarth Raamdaas (Saint)
Shaah Jahaan (Mugal King)
A grammarian before Paanini.
Shaakya Muni (Prophet of Bauddh) see
A sage who wrote aphorisms or Sootra.
Name of the author of a Shraut Sootra.
A King who ascended the throne of Magadh kingdom in 422 BC. He ruled for 39
years. He moved his capital from Paataliputra (present Patanaa) to Girivraj.
He was a great conqueror. He assimilated Avantee (Ujjain), Vats, and Kosal
in his empire, in addition to Kaashee which he had won at the time of taking
Shoodrak (Drama Writer)
(140-60 BC) Author of the drama " Mrichchhkatikam".
(1150-1240 AD) Author of "Uttar
Naishadheeya Charit" - a long Sanskrit poem (Mahaa Kaavya) containing
the story of Nal and Damayantee. The details of Shreeharsh's life are uncertain.
Reportedly, when Shreeharsh's father, a poet in King Vijayachandra's court in Kannauj,
was disgraced in a poetry contest, he retired and asked his son Shreeharsh to avenge
him. In time Vijayachandra became Shreeharsh'’s patron, and it was at the king’s
request that the poet composed Naishadheeya Charit. Among his other writings are
treatises on elements of Buddhist and Vedaant beliefs and eulogies on late kings.
Persecuted by a queen, jealous of an honor bestowed....
Siddhaarth (Prophet of Baudhh)
Somdev Bhatt (Story Writer)
Author of "Kathaa Saritsaagar".
(30-110 AD) Name of a Hindu surgeon who wrote the first ever text-book of
surgery, "Sushrut Sanhitaa". It describes 101 types of surgical
instruments made of steel for various uses in a surgical operation. During
his time surgical skills were highly developed and even plastic surgery
was performed, especially to change the shape of nose.
Tagore, Ravindranath see Thaakur, Raveendranaath
Thaakur, Raveendranaath (Poet, Nobel Prize winner)
(1861-1941). Although his last name was Thaakur, it was anglicized for
unknown reasons to Tagore. His first name's spelling is also "Rabindranath"
because Bangaalee pronunciation effect. He was educated in Kalkattaa and
England, although he never received a college degree. He was a great poet -
wrote Geetaanjali for which he was awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913;
and wrote short stories. His all writings reflect the effect of Upanishad. Even
Mahaatmaa Gaandhee sough advice from him. In 1921, he converted his father's
retreat Shaanti Niketan into a world university and named it Vishwa Bhaaratee.
Tikkann (Telugu Poet)
The most famous poet of Telugu Language who wrote the last 15 chapters of
MBH in Telugu, the first 3 chapters having been written by Nanniyaa and
Todar Mal (King)
[Adapted from Wikipedia]
Raajaa Todar Mal was born in Laharpur, in Avadh, and rose to become the Finance
Minister in Akbar's court. He overhauled the revenue system of Akbar's Mugal
empire. He was from the Khatree community of Panjaab but some consider him to be
belonging to Kaayasth community. That he was a Khatree and not a Kaayasth is
also supported by the fact, as found in his many paintings also, that he wore a
sacred thread (Yagyopaveet), which is traditionally worn only by Braahmqn, Kshatriya
and Khatree people but not Kaayasth people. Todar Mal had developed his expertise
in Sher Shaah's employ.
Todar Mal succeeded Khwaajaa Malik
Itimad Khaan in 1560. Raja Todar Mal introduced standard weights and measures, a
land survey and settlement system, revenue districts and officers. He can be thought
of one of first statisticians in India and perhaps in the the world. Many of the
fundamental data collection schemes as practiced over the centuries in the Indian
subcontinent and neighboring countries can be attributed to him. In 1582, Akbar
bestowed on Raja Todar Mal the title, Deevaan-e-Ashraf. His systematic land reforms
of 1582, popularly known as the Bandobast (management) System, provided the framework
of subsequent land taxation systems, including that introduced by Thomas Munro under
British rule (1757-1947). Todar Mal died in Laahaur in 1586, the same year as Akbar's
other Nava Ratna Raajaa Birbal died.
(c 1532-1623). The greatest poet of all times, composed "Raam Charit Maanas",
the life story of Shree Raam in Avadhee language. It is based largely on "Adhyaatm
Raamaayan", an original work in Sanskrit.
Upagupt (Bauddh Monk)
Name of an Aangiras Rishi who composed the 4th Mandal of the Rig Ved.
Very little is known about Vaatsyaayan, except that he is the author of well known
"Kaam Sootra". For centuries people believed that he lived during
Gupt Period, 6th century BC, but
recent evidence shows that he wrote this book around 150 BC. He was a devout religious
man. He wrote Nyaaya Sootra Bhaashya also based on a book Nyaaya Sootra which was
written by Gautam
Buddha in 2nd century BC. Though Vaatsyaayan's life remains a mystery, he did
achieve in death the ultimate memorial - a lauding mention by Krishn in the Bhagvad
Geetaa, one of civilization's seminal texts on philosophy and religion.
It is indeed difficult to fix the exact
date either of the life of Vaatsyaayan or of his work. It is supposed that he must have
lived between the first and sixth century AD, on the following grounds. He mentions that
Saatakarnee Saatavaahan, a king
of Kuntal, killed Malayavatee, his wife, with an instrument called Katamaree by striking
her in the passion of love, and Vaatsyaayan quotes this case to warn people of the danger
arising from some old customs of striking women when under the influence of this passion.
Now this King of Kuntal is believed to have lived and reigned during the 1st century AD,
and consequently Vaatsyaayan must have lived after him. On the other hand, Varaahamihir,
in the eighteenth chapter of his 'Brihat Sanhitaa', treats of the science of love, and
appears to have borrowed largely from Vaatsyaayan on the subject. Now Varaahamihir is
said to have lived during the 6th century AD, and as Vaatsyaayan must have written his
works previously, therefore not earlier than the 1st century AD, and not later than the
6t century AD, must be considered as the approximate date of his existence
Varaah Mihir (Astrologer)
Vidyaasaagar, Ishwar Chandra
Author of the law book called "Mitaakshar" - a commentary on
Vishaakhdatt (Drama Writer)
He wrote this drama, "Mudraa Raakshas", around 800 AD. It mentions about
Chandragupt Maurya's alliance with Poras
(Parvateshwar, the King of Panjaab).
She was the wife of Gautam Buddh and had a son named Raahul from him.