14 Ratn (Gems)
Dharm Sanhitaa describes 14 Ratn of a king like this - (1) Disc, (2) chariot,
(3) gems, (4) sword, (5) shield, (6) banner (Dhwajaa) and (7) treasure - these
seven are inanimate things; and (8) wife, (9) Purohit, (10) army chief, (11)
chariot riders, (12) foot soldiers, (13) horse riders, and (14) elephant
riders - these seven are animate things which should be owned by all
In all Hindi words A used as prefix means "without" or "no".
Thus (1) Dharm and A-Dharm means which is not Dharm; (2) Vidyaa and A-Vidyaa
means which is not Vidyaa (education), it is ignorance; (3) Paramaarth and
A-Paramaarth means which is not Paramaarth. It is about seeing One in everybody,
or seeing everybody like himself; (4) Viyogaa and A-Viyogaa means where there
is no separation (Viyog means separation); (5) Dwait and A-Dwait means which is
not Two but One. There are two paths - one of A-Dwait and another is of Dwait.
Who believe in A-Dwait, they believe in One, that the Aatmaa (soul) and Paramaatmaa
(God) are One, they are not two; while who believe in Dwait, they believe in Two -
Paramaatmaa and Aatmaa (soul). They see them differently; (6) Par and A-Par; (7)
Paraa and A-Paraa
see also Dwait Vaad
In A-Dwait Vaad Paramaatmaa (God) and Aatmaa (soul) are one - absolute monism. This
philosophy is of Jagadguru Shankaraachaarya
Vishnu, Indra, Aryamaa, Dhaataa, Twashtaa, Pooshaa, Vivaswaan, Savitaa, Mitra, Varun,
Anshu, and Bhag. Before Vaivaswat Manvantar, in Chaakshush Manvantar they were 12 Dev
Gan named as Tushit Devtaa. In Vaivaswat Manvantar they took birth from Aditi and were
called 12 Aaditya.
[Vishnu, Pratham, p 9]
Indra, Aryamaa, Dhaataa, Twashtaa, Pooshaa, Vivaswaan, Savitaa, Varun, Anshu, Bhag, Parjanya
[Padm, Srishti, p 49-50]
Aaditya Hridaya Stotra
This Stotra, found in Bhavishya Puraan, is very popular. It was so important in ancient
times that Maharshi Paraashar has recommended it to pacify Soorya in his Dashaa and
Antar-Dashaa times. The contents of Bhavishya Puraan given in Naarad Puraan also do not
match with the contents of present Bhavishya Puraan. Although it is not found in present
Bhavishya Puraan copies, but it may be found in almost all Stotra books. Aaditya Hridaya
Stotra by Agastya Muni found in Vaalmeeki Raamaayan is different from Bhavishya Puraan
Aaditya Hridaya Stotra.
Oblation offered to Agni (fire).
There are two meanings of Aashram --
(1) A place where saints, Rishi, Muni live in group building their huts.
(2) There are four Aashram in a person's life - (1) Brahmcharya - 5-25 years of age.
In this Aashram a child studies in Guru's house. (2) Grihasth - 25-50 years of
age. In this Aashram the child marries, and performs all duties of a Grihasth
including paying back the three Rin - Brahm Rin, Pitra Rin and Dev Rin. (3)
Vaanprasth - 50-75 years of age. In this Aashram, he may live in house or in
forest but detaches himself from worldly things gradually to prepare to go to
forest. (4) Sanyaas - 75-100 years of age. In this Aashram one goes to forest,
and leaves everything which is worldly. Lives like a Muni and keeps no touch
to world of any kind.
According to Bhaagvat Puraan six types of people come under the category of Aatataayee.
It is a process to make a thing successful by pronouncing Mantra. Sometimes
this process accompanies water also in hand, or that water in hand is moved
around that thing three times. This process transfers the power of Mantra to
that thing through pronouncing the Mantra and water. For example in Raamaayan
and Mahaabhaarat times the special arrows were not any special but they were
Abhimantrit by Mantra only. So the arrow was filled with that power and did
Ahankaar is of three types - Vaikaarik (Saatwik), Raajas (Taijas), and Taamas
(in Bhoot form - elements).
Here Vyaas Jee says that Amrit Kalash is kept on Soorya's chariot, but in
0/7 and MBH, 0/8 it is said that when Garud Jee went to take Amrit
Kalash to free his mother, he went to some lake. There Amrit Kalash was
surrounded by fire etc. So the descriptions of Amrit Kalash places do not
All living beings are born by four methods - Jaraayuj, Andaj, Swedaj,
There are two meanings of Brahmcharya - (1) celibacy, or restraining
oneself from sexual pleasure, (2) One of the four Aashram of a man's life
in which the person is a student, learns from his Guru following the rules
of Brahmcharya. See "Aashram" above. One who follows Brahmcharya
is called Brahmchaaree.
Buddhi is the ability to discriminate between good and bad, or what to do
and what not to do like issues. It may be compared to intellect.
Who rules the whole Prithvi, or country, he is called Chakravartee king. If
somebody says that "Emperor Ashok was a Chakravartee king of India",
it means that the whole India was under his control.
60 daughters. see
Dharm is not religion in Hinduism. It is the duties which should be performed by
a person according to his Varn (see below) and Aashram. When one does not perform
his duties according to his Aashram, he is called A-Dharmee or unreligious.
Dharm, Arth, Kaam, Moksh
Everybody has four types of desires in his life - Dharm, Arth, Kaam and Moksh.
Dharm means related to religion. Arth means related to wealth. Kaam means related
to satisfying Indriyaan's desires. And Moksh means salvation. One's all
actions are related to achieve or fulfill only these four types of desires. Among
them the Kaam is the lowest and Moksh is the highest type of desire.
see also A-Dwait Vaad
In this philosophy, there are two - Paramaatmaa (God) and Aatmaa (soul) -
dualism. When Paramaatmaa comes to this world, He is under the bondage of
Maayaa and sinful; otherwise as Paramaatmaa is absolute, Supreme, Gracious,
Omnipresent, Pure. This philosophy is of Maadhavaachaarya.
Dwi means second time, and Jaati means caste, thus Dwi-jaati means those
castes who have been born twice. In Hindu Dharm this is done by performing
the Upanayan Sanskaar
of a child. Since this Sanskaar is performed only for Braahman, Kshatriya and
Vaishya, these three caste people are called Dwi-jaati people.
Who is father? There are five types of fathers - (1) who gives birth, (2) who
performs Yagyopaveet, (3) who gives food, (4) who protects from fear, (5) who
gives education - these five have been regarded as father.
It is an island at some distance from the place where Gangaa joins the sea
- in Kolkata, on the shore of Bay of Bengal. The whole year it is submerged
under the sea, but it comes out for three days at the time of Makar Sankraanti.
At that time a great fair is organized there, people go there by boat, and a
great care is taken to evacuate them before the island submerges again in water.
Certainly whoever remains there is lost. It is believed that king Sagar's sons
were burned by Kapil Jee here only, for whom this Gangaa was brought on Prithvi
by Bhageerath Jee.
Gangaa Saagar Sangam Teerth
Where Gangaa meets sea.
There are three Gun - Sat or Sattwa or Sato Gun, Raj or Rajas or Rajo Gun, and
Tam or Taamas or Tamo Gun. In Sat Gun all characteristics are good, in Rajo Gun
some are good and some are bad, but in Tamo Gun all characteristics are bad. But
Bhagavaan is beyond these Gun, that is why He is called Nir-gun (without attributes).
But all creatures are the results of Gun. They all have one or two or all Gun in
These children were the sons of Kaalnemi, Hiranyakashyap's brother, that is
why they are called here his sons. They disrespected Hiranyakashyap and devoted
themselves to Shree Hari, that is why he gave them Shaap that they would be
killed by their father only. This reference comes in Harivansh Puraan. Kans was
the incarnation of Kaalnemi that is why he killed them.
There are a total ten Indriyaan - five Gyaan Indriyaan and five Karm Indriyaan.
From our Gyaan Indriyaan - Skin, eyes, nose, ears, tongue are five Gyaan Indriyaan
by which we obtain knowledge. They obtain knowledge by touch, seeing, smelling,
hearing, and tasting. There are five Karm Indriyaan by which we do our Karm -
mouth, hands, feet, procreative parts, and excretion part. They help in eating
and drinking, creating something, moving around, extending families, and excreting
see also Vane
Strangely enough, Jain Dharm's description is found in Padm Puraan, Bhoomi Khand,
in the reference that "how Atri's son Ang's son Vane went astray from his own
Dharm?" It is mentioned there that a man came in disguise there and preached
him Jain Dharm. It shows that Jain Dharm is very old.
A Kalp is measured on Earth as Brahmaa's one day only (not night, because
his night is also of one Kalp). Brahmaa's one day is equal to 1,000 Chaturyug
period (four Yug = Sat, Tretaa, Dwaapar and Kali). And this Chaturyug period
is equal to roughly 4,320 million x 1000 Chaturyug = 4,320 billion human years.
Brahmaa creates this Universe every day as he wakes up and destroys it in the
evening before he sleeps.
This is Brahmaa's everyday dissolution of the Universe - Bhoo, Bhuvar and
Swah (Prithvi Lok, Swarg Lok and Paataal Lok).
Krityaa is a Raakshas type male or female who is produced after doing a Yagya
to kill someone. In Hindu religious literature several people have produced
1. Twashtaa produced a Krityaa to kill Indra because he killed his son. His
name was Vritraasur. But he was killed by Indra through Vajra made by the
bones of Dadheechi.
2. After Krishn killed fake Krishn and his friend Kaashee Raaj, Kaashee
Raaj's son produced a Krityaa to kill his father's killer, but Krishn killed
Kshar and A-Kshar
This concept is given in Geetaa
also. Kshar means mortal and A-Kshar means immortal or eternal - means Bhagavaan.
Whoever Kshatriya (by birth) have turned into Braahman work, such as Vishwaamitra
who was born as a Kshatriya then did severe Tap and became Brahmarshi.
Kshetra and Kshetragya concepts have been described in Geetaa also.
This concept is given in Geetaa
also - see Kshetra and Kshetragya there..
Kush grass is a special type of grass which is used to make an Aasan (mat for
sitting) and for worshipping too.
Mahaabhoot Tattwa (Elements)
There are 5
elements - earth, fire, air, water and sky.
There are 14 Manvantar in one Kalp and so are
14 Manu. Every Manvantar has a Manu as its Lord.
Maayaa in its original dormant form is called Mool Prakriti. Maayaa is the means
to create this Universe.