Devtaa of Tithi;
A Tithi is a day. A guest
is a Tithi. There are 15 Tithi (days) in a fortnight. The uninvited guest does
not stay longer than a Tithi; since he is uninvited and does not stay even for
a day, he is called A-Tithi and is always welcomed in Indian culture. Half a
Tithi is called Karan.
What is a Tithi and How is it Calculated?
One Tithi is one day. In
Hindu calendar all days are called
Tithi. Hindu calendar is arranged according to Moon and not by Sun.
Thus Tithi is a lunar day which
is approximately 1/30th of the time it takes the Moon to orbit the Earth.
Thus Tithi is a period in which the difference between the longitudes of Moon
and Sun is exactly 12°. All Tithi may begin at varying times of the day and
may also vary in duration from approximately 19 to 26 hours.
The Lunar month starts on Pratipadaa Tithi when the Sun and the Moon are at the
same longitude. As time progresses, Moon will go ahead of Sun. When Moon's longitude
is exactly 12° greater than Sun's longitude, then the first Tithi ends and the
second Tithi starts. In general, Tithi may be calculated using the formula:
Take the difference: (Moon's Longitude - Sun's Longitude)
If the value is negative, add 360.
Divide the result by 12, ignore the reminder and take the quotient.
Add 1 to the Quotient which gives the Tithi number as indicated in the
table and find out the corresponding Tithi name.
So a Tithi is a lunar day.
There are 15 Tithi in the waxing cycle of the Moon (Shukla Paksh), and
there are 15 Tithi in the waning cycle of the Moon ( Krishna Paksh). The
Tithi is based on a relationship between the Sun and the Moon. The first
Tithi (Pratipadaa) is 12 degrees of the Moon away from the Sun, after the
new Moon (Amaavasyaa) or full Moon (Poornimaa). The second Tithi is the next
12 degrees of the Moon away from the Sun, 12 to 24 to 36 degrees and so on.
A particular day is ruled by the Tithi prevailed on that day at sunrise time,
but the Tithi can change anytime of the day or night as it is not based on the
solar day but on the situation of the Moon in relation to the Sun. Each Tithi
has a name, a ruling planet, and can be used in Muhoort (for picking an auspicious
A Lunar month consists of 30 Tithi.
The month starts at the start of Padyaami and ends at end of Amaavasyaa. This is
when the longitudes of Sun and Moon are exactly the same. This means that the Moon
will complete one cycle around the zodiac and catch up with Sun again -
Note: Why do people not agree on the Tithi of month start?
The Moon is the mother and the Sun is the father. On the material plane,
we can see from the Tithi that what was in the mind (Manas) of the mother
and father at the time of conception. What is in the mind of the parents
at conception is very important in the life of the child. On a spiritual
plane we can see what was in the mind (Mahat) of the Divine Mother and
Father, or what is the purpose of our creation.
This statement about the month beginning and its end on Amaavasyaa day seems logical,
as the longitude of the Sun and the Moon are the same on that day, but this is more
common in southern states of India and Gujaraat. In northern India the month starts
from the Pratipadaa after Poornimaa or Poornmaasee (Full Moon) and ends on Poornimaa
or Poornmaas. Since the month ends on that day that is why it is called Poornmaas (=
full month). By name this also seems logical.
So one Tithi is made of 12 degrees. It shows that each degree is assigned to one
of the signs of the Zodiac. In consequences of this, the first degree of the Tithi
is Aries, the second degree is Taurus, the third degree is Gemini, and so on. Then
the Moon is examined to see in which sign within the Tithi it is placed. Some computer
programs give percentages of the Tithi passed at the time of birth. This chart helps
one find the sign easily, by seeing the percent of the Tithi passed through at the time
Calculation of a Tithi
Lunar Tithi are free from Ayanaansh correction and as well as latitude
correction, and occur at the same moment throughout the whole world,
provided if our computations are on Geo-centric basis.
If Tithi are based on Topo-centric basis , occurrence of moments of Tithi
will vary according to latitude as Topo-centric longitude vary up to 1 deg
45 min depending on the latitude and altitude of the place of observation
on account of parallax. We must try to lift ourselves from the myth that
Soorya Siddhaant value can give better results. Trick lies in method of
computation and observation.
That is why if we take
Geo-centric sidereal /tropical longitudes, no doubt, ending moment of a
Lunar Tithi will occur at the same moment throughout the globe. While the
Topo-centric positions slightly differ from place to place depending on
the longitude and altitude of the place of observation, maximum being 9
arc sec for Sun, 62 arc min for Moon and 1 arc min for planets. This is
the reason, that if Tithi is calculated on the basis of Topo-centric positions,
it will vary from place to place. Visibility of the Moon and eclipses are
computed with the help of Topo-centric Moon and Sun positions for a place.
The timing of Ingress of Moon or any planet in any Nakshatra or sidereal
sign will depend on following factors:
1. Method of computation - Geocentric or Topo-centric
2. First point of sidereal Aries - ie Ayanaansh value.
The name of Lunar months are assigned after the names of prominent stars
on the path of the Sun ie ecliptic. Most of the time Moon's position
falls in these stars on the day of occurrence of new-moon day, but this is
not a rule.
Types of Tithi
There are several types of Tithi. To
know the auspicious Tithi one must know about them.
A-Khand Tithi (undivided)
When one Tithi continues from sunrise to sunset, it is called "A-Khand
Khandit Tithi (divided)
When any Tithi ends before sunset it is called "Khandit (divided) Tithi"
Kshaya Tithi (destructive)
If there are three Tithi in one day, it is called (Tithi is destructed)
..... Not good
If there is one Tithi distributed in three days, it is called Adhi-Tithi
(Excess Tithi)........ Not good
Dashamee Viddhaa Ekaadashee
This is a very special Ekaadashe on which on should not observe fast.
There are some Tithi which are good
for certain jobs, while others are not good.
Tithi 5 to 10 of both Paksh give average results. Others are considered unfavorable.
1, 6 and 11 : For Dance, music, house construction, garments, sculpture,
wearing or making jewelry, agriculture and festivals.
2, 7 and 12 : For Thread ceremony, travel, marriage, ornaments, artistic
pursuits, and vehicles.
3, 8 and 13 : For House building, war-related activities, medication,
agriculture, jobs related to weaponry.
4, 9 and 14 : For Use of fire, poison and weapons, cruel deeds, causing
injury or death, study of occult, inauspicious pursuits.
5, 10, 15 and 30 : For Marriage, sacred thread ceremony, travel, coronation,
and propitiation of planet.
Many people consider Ashtamee Tithi inauspicious for auspicious works.
In an year there are 4 points, which represent change in the travel of
Sun. They are December 21/22, March 21/22., June 21/22., and September21/
22. They are also called as Winter Solstice, Vernal Equinox, Summer Solstice
and Autumn Equinox. Similarly in a month there are 4 points, New Moon,
Ashtamee, Full Moon and Ashtamee. In the same way, in a day there are 4
points - they are Sunrise, Mid Noon, Sunset and Midnight.
In all these 4 points there
is a change in environment and also corresponding change points in living
beings. So these 4 points in a day, in a month, and in an year are sacred
points and elders advise us to keep us more in the meditation, into
seeking Naaraayan, and not to spend time on mundane matters, but to keep
one in subtle and spiritual Saadhanaa. That's how usually new ventures of
mundane nature are not proposed on these days. Not keeping this point in
mind, we only say that these timings are not auspicious for auspicious
works - of any kind of mundane proposals. But when it is a work of public
use, selfless and productive work, it can be done on any of these days.
However if on such a day the Gochar is in favor, a good day is so advocated.
The marriages are mostly part of the combined Karm of the couple to go
through, if lived without awareness. So they happen, but if we are aware
of the ritual and go through the Mantra and their meanings and try to put
in to practice, then the marriage is purposeful.
Tithi And Their Devtaa (Lords)
According to Bhavishya Puraan, all Tithi were assigned to different Devtaa to
give fruits to their worshippers. Those Devtaa are called Lord of those Tithi
and give fruits only when worshipped on those Tithi. These Tithi are assigned
like this by Soorya. He has assigned
Agni - It is good for all types of auspicious and religious ceremonies
Brahmaa - It is good for the laying of foundations for buildings and other
things of a permanent nature.
Kuber - It is good for the cuttings of one's hair and nails and shaving.
Ganesh - It is good for the destruction of one's enemies, the removal of
obstacles, and acts of combat.
Naag - It is favorable for administering medicine, the purging of poisons,
Kaarttikeya - It favorable for coronations, meeting new friends, festivities, and
Soorya - It is good to begin a journey, buy conveyances, and deal with other
such things as a movable nature.
Rudra - It is good for taking up arms, building of one's defenses, and
Durgaa - It is suitable for killing enemies, acts of destruction, and violence.
Yam Raaj - It is auspicious for acts of virtue, religious functions, spiritual
practices, and other pious activities.
||Vishwedev Gan -
It is good for fasting, devotional activities, and remembrance of the Supreme Lord.
||Vishnu - It is auspicious
for religious ceremonies the lighting of the sacred fire, and the performance of one's duties.
Kaam Dev - It is good for forming friendships, sensual pleasures, and festivities.
Shankar - It is goos for administering poison and calling of elementals and
Chandramaa - It is auspicious for merry making, fire sacrifice.
Pitri Gan - It is suitable for the propitiation of the Manes and performance
Thus if one has to worship Durgaa, he should worship her on Navamee.
Manvantar-aadi (Beginning of the Manvantar) Tithi
There are 14 Manvantar. The 14 Manvantar start on the followings Tithi. All
these Tithis are holy for Shraaddh Karm --
(1) Kaartik Shukla 12
(2) Aashwin Shukla 9
(3) Chaitra Shukla 3
(4) Bhaadrapad Shukla 3
(5) Paush Shukla 11
(6) Aashaadh Shukla 10
(7) Maagh Shukla 7
(8) Bhaadrapad Krishn 8
(9) Shraavan Amaavasyaa
(10) Phaalgun Poornimaa
(11) Aashaadh Poornimaa
(12) Kaartik Poornimaa
(13) Jyeshth Poornimaa
(14) Chaitra Poornimaa
[These Amaavasyaa and Poornimaa are according to where
the month ends on Amaavasyaa, where the month ends on Poornimaa,
they should take it as its next month.]
Yug-aadi (Beginning of the Yug) Tithi
As there are Manvantar beginning Tithi, there are Yug beginning Tithi also, the
followings are the Yug beginning Tithi --
(1) Sat Yug Beginning Tithi - Kaartik Shukla 9
(2) Tretaa Yug Beginning Tithi - Vaishaakh Shukla 3
(3) Dwaapar Yug Beginning Tithi - Maagh Amaavasyaa
(4) Kali Yug Beginning Tithi - Bhaadrapad Krishn 13
[Naarad Puraan, p 327-328]