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Sa   see also   Nir
Sa in Hindi language is a prefix to denote "with".
Sa-Aakaar - Aakaar means form, so Sa-Aakaar means "with form". When Bhagavaan takes Avataa and appears assuming some kind of form, it is called His Sa-Aakaar Roop.
Sa-Ashtaang      see      Saashtaang
Sa-Gun - Gun means attributes, so Sa-Gun means "with attributes". When Bhagavaan takes Avataar and appears assuming some kind of form, it is called His Sa-Gun Roop.

(1) Who does Saadhanaa, he is called Saadhak.  (2) The person working to achieve some goal.

(1) Continuous systematic strict discipline to achieve anything.
(2) Saadhanaa is not just Meditation, it is the path for salvation. It is the process of surrendering to and achieving of god. It consists of breathing techniques, Nyaas, chanting of Mantra, chanting of Omkaar of different types and the rhythm and tones. There are different stages of achievement at all stages and the contents keep changing progressively. Depending on The stages of awakening of the Kundalinee. Thus Saadhanaa is more complete and integrated term, as compared to Meditation, or chanting of Mantra.

(1) Virtuous.  (2) Who doesn't care of worldly things, treats all alike with noble feelings.  (3) Saadhus are religious mendicants who have to be initiated to get into one of the four Aashram called Sanyaas Aashram.  (4) In Sanskrit language, a Saadhu means.. a patient one, or the one who has mastered his Ahankaar (ego).

Also there are certain rules or Niyam to follow, which are by strict order, for example, a Saadhu cannot have sex, a Saadhu cannot eat certain types of food like onions, a Saadhu cannot wear a ceremonial thread (Upanayan) and so on. So effectively a Sanyaasee can be called a Saadhu.

Feminine of Saadhu, good, virtuous, pure.

Sea, or Ocean. It has several other names - Samudra, Udadhi, Varunaalaya (because Varun lives there).

Saagar Manthan

Saakaar      see also       Nir-Aakaar
Sa-Aakaar - means with a definite form.

Saalokya     see also      Saameepya,     Saaroopya,  Saayujya
One of the four types of Moksh. This is the combination of two words - Sa and Lok. It means "in the same world"; or living in the same world. People attain Saalokya of Soorya or Vishnu after certain Vrat or fasts - this means that they will live in the same Lok as of Soorya's or Vishnu's. The four types of Moksh are - (1) Saalokya, that is living in the same Lok or regin, or region with the Dev whom one worshipped; (2) Saameepya, being near the Dev; (3) Saaroopya, receiving the same form or possessing the same Aishwarya (Divine qualities) as of Dev and (4) Saayujya, becoming one with the Dev worshipped.

Saam, Daam, Dand, Bhed Policies
These policies are advised for a king to use for persuasion, but other people also can use them as needed. (1) Saam means by negotiation or good counseling. (2) Daam means by giving money or tempting somebody (incentives of various sorts). (3) Dand means by punishing or threatening somebody. (4) Bhed means divide and rule or by diplomacy or sowing dissention in his ranks.

Saam Ved     see     Ved, Saam

Saamagree is a mixture of a few things which are used to offer Aahuti in Havan (in sacred fire). It may include - white sesame seeds, Ghee, sugar, rice, barley, some sweet smelling material.

Saameepya    see also    Saalokya,   Saaroopya,   Saayujya
(1) Closeness.  (2) Being near to somebody.  (3) Proximity.  (4) One of the four types of Moksh in which a person lives with God after his death - (1) Saalokya, that is living in the same Lok or regin, or region with the Dev whom one worshipped; (2) Saameepya, being near the Dev; (3) Saaroopya, receiving the same form or possessing the same Aishwarya (Divine qualities) as of Dev and (4) Saayujya, becoming one with the Dev worshipped.


(1) Name of people living on the banks of Saraswatee River.  (2) One of the five classes of North Indian Braahman.


Saaroopya    see also    Saalokya,   Saameepya,   Saayujya
(1) One of four types of Moksh.  (2) Conformity with God. This is the combination of two words - Sa and Roop. It means "being as the same form". People attain Saaroopya of Soorya or Vishnu after certain Vrat or fasts - this means that they will become like Soorya or Vishnu. The four types of Moksh are - (1) Saalokya, that is living in the same Lok or regin, or region with the Dev whom one worshipped; (2) Saameepya, being near the Dev; (3) Saaroopya, receiving the same form or possessing the same Aishwarya (Divine qualities) as of Dev and (4) Saayujya, becoming one with the Dev worshipped.

Saashtaang Pranaam     see also    Pranaam
Sa+asht+ang. Sa means "with", Asht means "eight", and Ang means "parts". Pranaam means "greeting with respect". So Saashtaang Pranaam means "Greeting with respect with eight body limbs". The eight body limbs are - 2 hands, 2 knees, chest, head, and 2 feet. Some say that it is done by : hand, feet, knees, chest, head, eyes, heart, speech. This is done in normally lying in on the stomach position, by joining both palms together towards Bhagavaan and saying, "I greet thee with pure heart".

One of the three Gun - Saatwik, Raajas and Taamas. Pure. This word may be used in several contexts - Saatwik food, Saatwik ideas, Saatwik feelings, Saatwik living, Saatwik nature etc.

Related to Sun.

Saavitree       see also      Gaayatree
(1) Verse 3-62-10 of Rig Ved, more popularly known as Gaayatree Mantra because of its meter.

Union.  One of four types of Moksh - complete identification with God - (1) Saalokya, that is living in the same Lok or region, or region with the Dev whom one has worshipped; (2) Saameepya, being near the Dev; (3) Saaroopya, receiving the same form or possessing the same Aishwarya (Divine qualities) as of Dev and (4) Saayujya, becoming one with the Dev worshipped.

Sabar Tantra

(1) Assembly.  (2) Meeting.  (3) Society.

Sabzee     see   Vegetables

Sat + Chit + Aanand = Sachchidaanand. One who is the embodiment of Sat (truth), Chit (consciousness) and Aanand (joy or bliss), means God.

Sacred Objects

Sacred Thread     see     Yagyopaveet

(1) Leaving or abandoning something. It may be anything from comfort to any tangible thing. (2) Yagya.

Sadguru     see      Guru

Sahastraar Chakra     see     Chakra

(1) Another name of Shiv.  (2) King of Haihaya Vansh, originally named as Arjun, killed by Parashuraam.

Sakat Bhedan


During the same period. 


Samaya    see also    Measurement of Time
(1) Time.  (2) see  Tantra


Sacrificial firewood - small size sticks (twigs type - 10"-12" long) for doing Havan. All woods are not used for this purpose; only certain kinds of woods are used, normally of mango tree.


(1) Lips. Adhar.  (2) This is an auspicious Dohaa which is read after every Chaupaaee (normally four) plus Dohaa while reading Tulasee's Raam Charit Maanas. There are several Dohaa for this purpose, but mostly 2-3 Dohaa are very common for this purpose. 1 - Mangal Bhavan Amangal Haaree, Dravahu So Dasharath Ajir Bihaaree.  2. Mangal Bhavan Amangal Haaree, Umaa Sahit Jehi Japat Puraaree.

(1) Sea or Ocean.  (2) Samudra Devtaa (sea god), or Saagar, or Iraavat

Samvaad Sookt
Samvaad Sookt is in the form of a dialog between Yam and Yamee. It is found in Rig Ved and is generally considered as a Sookt to bring harmony between couples. Hom are also performed to improve the relationship between husband and wife.

Samvartak is the name of the Agni which appears just before the Pralaya (deluge) and towards the end of the 1,000 years o Kali Yug.

Samvat   see   Samvatsar
Samvat is the short form of Samvatsar, and Samvatsar means a year. Vatsar also means one year. So all, Vatsar, Samvatsar and Samvat, mean the same thing - one year.

Samvatsar   see also   Baarhaspatya Measurement


Sanaatan   see also   Shaashwat
Ever living. Eternal. Which has no beginning and no end. Sanaatan is a Vaidik term, which means "eternal, perpetual, permanent, everlasting' primeval, ancient" etc according to MW SED dictionary. Sanaatan is derived from the root "San". If Sanaatan is garbage, all those words made from the same root must be associated with garbage, such as Santaan, Sant, etc. Since "Sanaatan" is used in Vaidik texts, its original meanings should be derived from there, where this word and its cognates were used in the sense of "ancient, old, ever, always" etc. Hence, even during the Vaidik period, this term was used for the earliest as well as the eternal element in Vaidik philosophy. Many cognates of this term clarify that this term was associated with the earliest spiritual source of everything, i.e, pure soul.
Sanaatan Kaal - means from the very beginning (when the beginning point is not known).
Sanaatan Purush - The earliest man - God, Hari, Bhagavaan
Sanaatan Dharm - The earliest Dharm (when the earliest time point is not known) - Hindu Dharm.

Sandhi is the rule of Sanskrit grammar by which the final and the initial syllables of two words are collated, such as if Sandhyaa and Ansh have to be collated, it will become Sandhyaansh.


Sandhyaansh    see       Sandhyaa

Sangam     see also   Prayaag
Sangam means "meeting". Sangam is also called the place where two rives meet (as Prayaag). Thus there may be many Sangam places. But if somebody says "Sangam", normally it is understood as Ilaahaabaad (UP) where Gangaa and Yamunaa rivers meet.


Most commonly, Sanhitaa means Ved, such as Rig Ved Sanhitaa means Rig Ved - in fact any methodical treatise on a subject, such as "Charak Sanhitaa" on medicine, Sushrut Sanhitaa" on surgery is called Sanhitaa.

Which can put life in a dead body. It may be a Vidyaa (knowledge - Brihaspati's son Kach went to learn this Vidyaa from Shukraachaarya Jee), or it may be a herb (Vaidya Sushen asked somebody to bring Sanjeevanee herb from Himaalaya to revive Lakshman Jee in Raam-Raavan war). Its use - "This has worked like a Sanjeevanee for him / or for his business." means that "that particular thing has revived his business."

Vow, intention. Taking vow to do something. It is common to take Sankalp (vow) while donating something to a Braahman; or while doing some religious work, such as vowing for fasting etc.

Pulling. Since Balaraam, Krishn's elder brother, was pulled from Devakee's womb to Rohinee's womb, he is called Sankarshan also.

Sankhyaa Pranaalee


"That which continues without beginning or end". The cycle of ignorance, desire, action and longing to reap the fruits of one's actions by taking birth.

Sworn to do some work. In Mahaabhaarat, Sansaptak brothers, they were five like Paandav, sworn either to kill Arjun or to die in the battlefield. At that time Susharmaa was the eldest and was the king. When Yudhishthir performed Ashwamedh Yagya their children came to fight with Arjun - Sooryavarmaa, Ketuvarmaa, Dhritvarmaa.

Subtle impressions of one's own past Karm or actions. The innermost wall of the city of life is constructed by Sanskaar that holds the seeker's attachments and pleasure-seeking desires.

Sanskrit Language

Santosh     see also   Niyam

Sanyaas     see also    Vairaagya
It is the Fourth Aashram in a human being's life when he detaches himself from everything belonging to this world and prepares for meeting Brahm. During this period, he may worship God, serve the community. They are eleven in number and all have three eyes Trishool in their hands. Even leaving worldly desires is also Sanyaas. When one formally takes Sanyaas, he automatically relinquishes his present Varn to which he belonged. No doubt, there are variations in the matter of Dand, Shikhaa, and color and shade of his clothes. Just as Grihasth Dharm has been declining gradually, Sanyaas Aashram is also declining gradually.


Sanyamanee Puree
It is the city of Yam Raaj where he lives. It is on Meru Parvat.


Sapphire    see    Neelam

Sapt Padee

Sapt Rishi
According to Bhaagvat Puraan, there are seven Rishi in every Manvantar (there are 14 Manvantar in one Kalp). In every Manvantar they are different. These Rishi can be seen as stars in sky also. Their group of seven stars is called Great Bear and is near Polar star. They always revolve around the Polar star. This Manvantar's Saptarshi are - Atri, Vashishth, Kashyap, Gautam, Jamadagni, Vishwaamitra, and Bharadwaaj.

Sapt Shatee
A poem of 700 verses. There are several such poems - (1) "Devee Mahaatmya" or "Durgaa Saptshatee" in Sanskrit language, as part of Maarkandeya Puraan in praise of Durgaa. The three others are - (2) "Aarya Saptshatee" by Govardhanaachaarya, (3) "Gaathaa Saptshatee" by Haal, and (4) Satsaee by poet Bihaaree Daas Jee, (4) Incidentally, Bhagvad Geetaa also contain 700 Shlok or verses.

Reed.  In India, long before, about 60 years before, it was used to make pens to write with ink on paper, wood etc.



(1) Creation. The creation is of three types - Saatwik, Raajasik and Taamasik.
(2) Part. It is normally used in reference to the parts of book. When a book is divided in 6 parts, each part may be called as one Sarg. Then Sarg may be divided in several chapters.

Sarg, Pratisarg and Manvantar

Sarovar    see also    Kund
A pond filled with water. This can be used for taking bath, or to beautify a garden by planting flowers in it, especially the lotus flowers.

Mustard seeds.

(1) All, or Omni, or Infinite, or Universally
(2) It is a prefix also which also means "all". Some of the words with this prefix are given here. Normally all is used for Bhagavaan (God), all these words are used in the context of Bhagavaan -
--Sarv-Drik - Who can see everything
--Sarv-Eesh = Sarvesh - Who is the Lord everybody
--Sarv-Gyaanee - Omniscient
--Sarv-Saakshee - Who witnesses everything
--Sarv-Sampann - Who has everything
--Sarv-Shaktimaan - Omnipotent
--Sarv-Vidyaamayee - Soul of all Vidyaa or in whom all Vidyaa are included
--Sarv-Vyaapee - Omnipresent

Sat      see also     Yug
(1) Real or true or Ever-existing - God is supposed to be "Sat Chit Aanand" - means who is "Absolute Truth", who is "Pure Intellect" and who is "Pure Joy". (2) Existing.  (3) Right, or good in the sense that it is productive of good and happiness.  (4) One of the three attributes - Sat, Raj, Tam. (5) One of the four Yug - Sat, Tretaa, Dwaapar and Kali.


Protection of truth and evil path

This is a compound word. Sat + Sang. Sat means good and Sang means company. Thus Satang means company of good people, great souls, holy men.

It is a north Indian poor man's food. Roasted barley flour and roasted red chickpeas flour are turned into a paste like material by mixing it with water and sugar. It's effect is cool so people normally eat it in summer afternoons. But its several other dishes are also popular. It is abundantly eaten in Bihar state and eastern UP.

Satsang means the company of and conversation with devotees of Bhagavaan, saints, sages, Rishi, Muni etc good people. Normally in this type of Satsang people listen to or talk about God and related matters. Satsang is done with three three types of people -
(1) With Paramaatmaa - this is called Samaadhi - this is very very difficult
(2) People - who have seen the Truth - such great people are not seen in the world
(3) Swaadhyaaya - in the absence of these above two remains only to read the ideas of those great people, means self-study of their thoughts.

Truth. In religious sense, truth is the fact which is spoken considering one's Dharm, not just any truth. If it harms somebody, it should not be spoken. Say what is true and pleasant, but not what is unpleasantly true. In fact rare are the words both salutary and pleasing.

Satya Naaraayan    see    Naaraayan

(1) Good luck. (2) When some woman's husband is alive she is called Saubhaagyavatee. So being with husband alive is Saubhaagya for a woman.

Savitaa. Name of an independent deity in Rig Ved. He is also called Bhag. Savitra later became the synonym of Soorya (the Sun). He is considered one of the sons of Aditi, hence an Aaditya. 11 full hymns have been devoted to Savitra in Rig Ved. The most important Mantra devoted to him is Gaayatree Mantra. He was also considered Prajaapati, the creator of men

Saagar - a large bodyof water. There are 7 seas in Bhoor Lok -  Ksheer (milk), Ikshu (sugarcane juice), Kshaar (salty water), Ghrit (ghee or clarified butter), Dadhya (buttermilk),  and Jal (sweet water) - these are the seven oceans.

There are six seasons in India, of two months each. Shishir, Vasant, Greeshm, Varshaa, Sharad, and Hemant.

The ritual of combing the hair of a pregnant woman in her 6th or 8th month. The hair is parted in the middle. The significance of this ceremony is unclear. Although it is counted among 13 Sanskar of life, but it has almost vanished.


(1) Shells. (2) Mother of Pearl.

Senses     see    Indriyaan

(1) Bridge.  (2) Recitation of Mantra "OM" at the beginning of the Mantra acts like a bridge between the worshipper and the worshipped Devtaa. In another meaning, the same "OM" works as bridge while starting a Jap and ending the Jap.

Sevaa Aparaadh

Seven Mothers
They are the seven mothers: Brahmaanee, Maheshwaree, Kaumaaree, Vaishnavee, Varaahee, Indraanee, Chaamundaa. These seven mothers are the personified energies (Tejas) of seven deities resident in Durgaa. Another source says that Brahmaanee came from Brahmaa, Maheshwaree from Shiv, Kaumaree from Kaarttikeya, Vaishnavee from Vishnu, Varaahee from Varaah (Boar) Avataar of Vishnu, Indraanee from Indra.

Shaakaahaaree     see also   Maansaahaaree
Vegetarian food or a person who does not eat meat and fish etc. His food includes food made of all kinds of pulses, beans, vegetables, and fruits. No meat, no chicken, no fish, most times onion and garlic are also not included. Although people of Vaidik age used to eat meat, but later on, Vaishnav people (Who worship Vishnu or His Avataar) traditionally required to be vegetarian, and that is how this vegetarian food began to be called Vaishnav food.

(1) Branch (of a tree or plant).  (2) They are different rescensions (versions) of the Sanhitaa texts showing slight variations among different families because of the effect of long oral tradition.

Shaakt    see    Shaiv below;   Shakti

(1) A Bauddh who wears red clothes. Who follows Buddha's teachings, or Bauddh religion he is called Shaakya. Buddha himself was called Shaakya Muni.  (2) A division of Kshatriya, not related to Shak people.

Shaalgraam     see also    Shankh

Shaali Rice
A kind of rice. It is called Agahanee rice also. It is considered sacred and is used in most worship.

Shaalivaahan Samvat     see    Shak Samvat

(1) Silk cotton tree. 2) The name of a Dweep, Shaalmali Dweep, when Prithvi was divided in seven parts

The tranquil.  Quiet.   Peaceful.

(1) Peace.  (2) This word is often used three times after Om, "Om Shaanti, Shaanti, Shaanti" seeking peace at three levels - Adhi-bhautik (in this world), Adhi-daivik (at Devtaa level), and Adhyaatmik (at spiritual level). By pronouncing thus a Hindu asks God to establish peace throughout.

Shaanti Karm
It is done at the of the rite - sprinkling the holy water on the assembly with the Mantra "Aum Shaantih, Aum Shaantih, Aum Shaantih". He who recites the Mantra does so for the benefit of the persons present, over whose heads he has sprinkled the water.

Shaanti Paath
The famous Shaanti Paath has two versions - one of Yajur Ved (36-17), and the other one of Atharv Ved (19-9-14). This prayer is to establish peace in different parts of the Universe and to human beings and nature; for example when it prays peace in the forest, it hopes that mankind will preserve the forest and its habitat because this in turn will preserve the human species. Thus it is an appeal to the human beings to keep the Universe free of pollution, and disturbance and their minds calm; and to God to help them do it.


Another name of Saraswatee

Shaashwat   see also   Sanaatan
Shaashwat is a post-Vaidik word, which means "eternal, constant, perpetual" etc (p. 1068, MW SED dictionary).

Organized knowledge of some subject.

A mountain tribe in South India.

Shabd means word or sound, and Vedhee means piercing - which pierces the sound. Normally this word is used in the reference of arrows. In olden times the skilled archers could hit their target just by hearing their sound. There were some mistakes in recognizing the sounds but not in hitting. Raajaa Dasharath killed Shravan Kumaar like this; Paandu killed Rishi Kindam like this; and in modern history Prithveeraaj Chauhaan killed Jayachand by releasing his Shabd-Vedhee arrow.

Indra's wife. Known as Inndraanee also.

Six-faced, means Kaartikeya.

The first note of North Indian music. There are seven notes in North Indian music - Shadaj, Rishabh, Gandhaar, Madhyam, Pancham, Dhaivat, and Nishaad.

Shadopachaar Poojaa

Lord of Himaalaya Montain, means Shiv.

There are three sects in Hinduism - Vaishnav, Shaiv and Shaakt. Vaishnav people worship Bhagavaan Vishnu and His Avataar (Raam, Krishn etc); Shaiv people worship Bhagavaan Shiv and his sons - Ganesh and Kaartikeya and his Gan etc; and Shaakt people worship Shakti (power or Devee - Kaalee, Bhavaanee, Saraswatee etc). Although all kinds of people are found everywhere in India, still one may find UP state people mostly Vaishnav; Southern states people mostly Shaiv; and Bengal and Panjaab people mostly Shaakt.

Shaiv Darshan

(1) Name of an Indo-Eeraanian tribe. They attacked India and established their empire what later came to be known as Afgaanistaan, Paakistaan, and parts of Gujaraat and Madhya Pradesh of India. King Shaalivaahan and King Vikramaaditya defeated them.

Shak Samvat
Shak era - which commenced in 78 AD celebrating the defeat of Shak by Shaalivaahan, that is why it is called Shaalivaahan Samvat (era) also, but it is more commonly know as Shak Samvat.


(1) Juganoo. (2) Glow worm. (3) Winged insects.

(1) To be engaged in Bhagavaan's worship. (2) Control on mind.  (3) Calmness.  (4) Tranquility.  (5) Equanimity. Hindu scriptures lay great emphasis on Sham which brings internal peace (Shaanti). Sham brings the happiness to a person and gives him the ability to face difficulties and unpleasant events in life. It helps people to conquer anger and to think of the meaning of the life. It makes a person charitable towards other human beings.


Shamashaan Bhoomi (Ghaat)
Cremation ground where dead bodies are burnt.

Bestower of well-being, means Shiv.

Shamee Tree   see also    Trees for other trees


Shani Amaavasyaa     see     Amaavasyaa.

Shani Vaar
Saturday, the 7th day of the week.

(1) Suspicion.  (2) Doubt.

Who confers bliss - means Shiv.

Conch shell.

Shankh Mani     see  under Motee

Six-faced, means Kaartikeya.

Shanno Devee
Name of a Mantra of Rig Ved (10-9-4). This Mantra starts as "Om Shanoo Devee Rabhishtaye ....."

This is Shiv's Avataar (incarnation) to pacify Vishnu's Narasinh Avataar who killed Hiranyakshyap. Even after killing his Narasinh Bhagavaan was very angry, so to pacify Him, Shiv came as Sharabh.

Sharad Ritu
Autumn or Fall season. One of the six seasons o India. These six seasons are - (1) Vasant (Spring), (2) Greeshm (Summer), (3) Varshaa (Rainy), (4) Sharad (Autumn or Fall), (5) Hemant (Winter), and (6) Shishir (mild Winter).

Who has come in one's refuge - means refugee.

Shareer    see    Body

Moon. Chandramaa.

Shashtiapth Poorthi
According to Hindu calendar when one completes his 60 years, on his star birthday, it is said the planet positions are all exactly in the same positions as when he was born. people celebrate it as Shashthiapth Poorthi which signifies that the man has seen 1000 new Moons. It is also believed that the Moon is pleased with this and helps in attaining Moksh, and the person is no more controlled by Raashi chart (Moon Chart).

Shastra     see also      Astra
Weapons which are used taking in hands, are called Shastra, such as sword.

Shat Rudreeya    see    Rudram Chamakam
It is called "Rudra Upanishad" or "Shree Rudram" also.

Shatapath Braahman     see also   Braahman
This is a part of Shukla Yajur Ved, composed by Rishi Yaagyavalkya, and is perhaps the most important Braahman, but most of it, like other Braahman, has lost its importance in the present-day world. it is an obscure ritual manual, 2500 pages long, written 3000 years ago, rarely read in its entirety, and often dismissed as complex and crazy writings of ritualists.

Shatak   see the list of Shatak here in  100 in Sanskrit Literature
Shatak means 100. There are 7 Shatak in Hindi and Sanskrit literature.

Shauch    see also   Niyam
(1) Cleanliness. Cleanliness is of two types - internal and external. In internal cleanliness a persons cleans his ideas and mind and in external cleanliness he cleans his physical body by soap etc.
(2) Not being involved in Karm is also called Shauch.

(1) Glass (not tumbler).  Kaanch.  (2) Mirror.

Another name of Chandramaa.

(1) Remainder.  (2) Balance.  (3) Short form of Shesh Naag.

Shesh Naag
A thousand-headed serpent whose coil forms Vishnu's bed. It is also said that he has balanced this Prithvi on his head (Koorm Puraan, verse 48). This Devtaa, te King of serpents, with a 1,000 hoods, crown on his head, red like the mango leaf, brown-bearded, brown eyes, wearing yellow silk cloth, holding lotus, mace, conch and discus, adorned with ornaments, lying in the ocean of milk (Ksheer Saagar) - Bhavishya Puraan. According to Koorm Puraan, he supports the world.

(1) Prey (an animal's prey),  (2) Victim  


Tuft. A small flock of hair on the crown of head is left untouched when the hair-cut is done in Dwi-Jaati people. When it becomes long, it is tied in half knot. Now-a-days it is not in fashion, but many Braahman still keep it and maintain it.

Shikshaa    . see also    Ved
(1) Education.  (2) Related to Ved phonetics.

(1) Peacock. Mayoor, Mor.  (2) Name of a son of Rajaa Drupad in Mahaabhaarat.

Shishir Ritu
One of the six seasons in India. These six seasons are - (1) Vasant (Spring), (2) Greeshm (Summer), (3) Varshaa (Rainy), (4) Sharad (Autumn or Fall), (5) Hemant (Winter), and (6) Shishir (mild Winter).


Shiv Ashtottar
Shiv Ashtottar is a Stotra which describes Shiv's 100 names and was recited by Daitya Guru Shukraachaarya when he was in Shiv's stomach.

Shiv-Names     Shiv-Panchaaksharee

Shiv Puraan    see also   Puraan
One of the principal 18 Puraan.

Shiv Sookt       Shiv-Worship

Power of Shiv personified as Durgaa, his consort.

Another name of Paarvatee.

Shodash Upachaar    see also  Poojaa
Worshipping with 16 types of materials.

Sorrow.  Grief.

The fourth and the lowest Varn. This is the serving race, it serves all other three Varn. According to Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/14, its two main characteristics are -- Serving Braahman, cow and Devtaa with plain heart; and whatever is earned through that only being satisfied with that.

Shoonya (Zero)

Shoonyak     see also   Praanaayaam
One of the Praanaayaam's four processes - others are Rechak, Poorak, and Kumbhak. Neither inhaling breath, nor exhaling it is called Shoonyak position.


(1) There is no single English word for Shraddhaa. Shraddhaa is a mixed feeling of devotion, faith, satisfaction, and faith with reverence. It is a Divine quality and is an essential aspect of one's spiritual practice. Such faith does not rely on the knowledge of scriptures, but it comes from within. Nobody else can create faith in anything, it has to be from within. Faith is said to put life in a stone.
(2) Faith.  (3) Shraaddh

(1) Prosperity.  (2) Honorific added before the male names, such as Shree Raam, Shree Krishn.  (3) Another name of Lakshmee.

Shree Chakra

Shree Rudra Prashn   see   Rudram Chamakam

Shree Rudram  see   Rudram Chamakam
It is called "Rudra Upanishad" or "Shat Rudreeyam" or "Rudram Chamakam" also.

Shree Rudreeya   see   Rudram Chamakam

Shree Sookt
A Vaidik hymn praising goddess Lakshmee.

Shree Yantra

Who bears Shree (Lakshmee), means Vishnu..

Bilva fruit.

Shree Rudram   see   Rudram and Chamakam

Shreya     see also   Preya
According to Kath Upanishad, Shreya is "what is useful" for a man.

Another name of Ved.

Auspicious. There are many auspicious signs and things used alike are found in the whole India, such as women's jewelry, alike hairdo, alike apparel, similar fasts and festivals, use of similar materials on auspicious occasions, similar ideas about this world and the other world, greetings, entertaining guests etc etc.

(1) Purity.  (2) Cleanliness.

Shuddhi means cleaning. Shuddhi can be of anything. There are many types of Shuddhi: taking bath is one type of Shuddhi in which one cleans his body; people become Shuddh after "Sootak and Paatak" (see below). Not only bodies are cleaned but materials are also cleaned. For cleaning the materials see   Cleaning

Shukla Paksh     see also    Krishn Paksh
Bright fortnight. According to Indian calendar, A month is divided into two parts - The first 15 days from the 1st day to 15th day, when Moon decreases, up to Amaavasyaa (New Moon), is called Krishn Paksh; while the other half, from 16th day to 30th day, when Moon increases, up to Poornimaa (Full Moon), is called Shukla Paksh.

Shwet Dweep     see      Vishnu's Lok

(1) Dark complexion.  (2) Dark complexioned, means Krishn.


(1) Principles.  (2) Theories.  Siddhaant is a Sanskrit philosophical term that literally means "perfect conclusion". In Vaidik philosophy, Siddhaant represents a systematic and conclusive explanation of the highest teaching that leads to spiritual liberation.

Siddhaant Kaumudee
A book written by Bhattojee Deekshit, containing the simplified form of Paanini's Sanskrit grammar. This book is very popular and is most used by students of Sanskrit language. It has been abridged as "Laghu Siddhaant Kaumudee" by Varadaraaj.

Siddhaant Shiromani
A book of theorems of mathematics and astronomy by Bhaaskaraachaarya (1100-1170 AD). In this book, one chapter is on Algebra. The Arabs came to India to learn mathematics and the Europeans learnt mathematics from Arabs. For a long time Westerners considered the Arabs to be the originators of Algebra. It also contains the seeds of the theory of Calculus.


Siddh Mantra

Signs    see     Zodiac Signs

Sikh Religion

Sin     see      Paap

Red vermillion. Indian married women use it in worship, to apply Teekaa on their forehead and to apply in the parting line of their hair as marks of being married. Kumkum is made from turmeric or saffron (Kesar) while Sindoor is different from Kumkum and is made from a different process. Kumkum is waterproof while Sindoor is not.

Siyaar Singee

Another name of Shiv's son Kaarttikeya.

Skand Puraan
One of the 18 principal Puraan.    

Smaart Karm
Yagya, etc Karm. (Geetaa, 9/16)


Smriti, Paraashar


Snake   see    Naag


A compound word - Sa + Aham. Sa = He, Aham = I. According to Sandhi rules of Sanskrit language these two words become Soham after joining each other. It means "He I am". Unity of the Individual with Supreme Soul.

Soil is of four colors - white, yellow, red and black. Among them Gopee Chandan, Haritaal, Geroo etc are used in worship.

Solstice   see   Dakshinaayan

(1) Divinity in Rig Ved. The entire 9th Mandal is devoted to the prayers offered to Som.  (2) The Moon.  (3) A plant whose juice is intoxicated. Devtaa drink it - "Som Ras".  (4) Somvaar - 2nd day of the week - Monday.  (5) Amrit or nectar.  (6) There is a Temple of Som Naath in Gujaraat. It is the first Jyotirling.
Som Naath means Shiv, since he is the master of both Chandramaa (Moon) and Amrit.

Som Naath    see    Som

Som Ras     see     Som

Somvaar    see      Som

Somvatee Amaavasya    see    Amaavasyaa

A sonnet is a 14-line poem in iambic pentameter with a carefully rhyme scheme. Other strict, short poetic forms occur in English poetry, such as Sestina, the Villanelle, the Haiku, but none has been used so successfully as the Sonnet. The Italian Sonnet was introduced in the early 16th century. Its 14 lines break in Octave which usually rhymes as abbaabba, sometimes abbacddc, but rarely abababab; and a Sestet which may rhyme as xyzxyz or xyxyxy, or any of the multiple variations possible using only two or three rhyme sounds. The English or Shakespearean Sonnet, developed during the same period, consists of three quatrains, and a couplet with the pattern - abab cdcd efef gg.


Sookshm Shareer     see also     Body
Subtle or Astral body.

Sookt   see also   Bhoomi Sookt;   Naaraayan Sookt;    Naasdeeya Sookt;    Purush Sookt;    Rig Ved Sookt;    Rudra Sookt,    Shiv Sookt;    Shree Sookt;   

Soorya,     Soorya's Powers,   Soorya Namaskaar;   Soorya Siddhaant,     Soorya's Worship


Sootak and Paatak


Sootra + Aatmaa. Soul. The form of Aatmaa when it is attached to body. Thus the Aatmaa remains as Aatmaa until he takes up a body in this world. As soon as he takes up the body in the world, he is called Jeev. Jeev is the part of Paramaatmaa that lives in all living beings. He is called Jeev or Mahat Tattwa also.

Sorrows    see also    Taap
There are three types of sorrows - Adhi-Bhautik (related to body, like diseases), Adhi-Daivik (given by Devtaa like famine, flood, earthquake etc), Adhyaatmik (natural, such as at the time of birth or death). Adhi-BHautik sorrows can be relieved by taking medicine etc; Adhi-Daivik sorrows can not be cured; and Adhyaatmik sorrows can be removed only by knowledge.

[Bhaagvat Puraan, 7/3], tells 12 characteristics of soul - immortal, clean, One, Kshetragya, Aashraya (resting place), Nir-Vikaar (without any impurities - pure), self-illuminated, cause of everything, vast, alone, and uncovered.


Quartz.  Crystal.

Trembling or pulsating.

Masaalaa. See the list of most used  spices.


Spring Equinox


(1) To steal. (2) To rob. In this way "A-Steya" means "not stealing" or "not robbing".

Sthaavar    see also     Creation
Who cannot move.  Immovable. Achal.  Trees, mountains, etc are all Sthaavar. Even Shiv Ling is also Sthaavar as other Devtaa can be moved but not a Shiv Ling. Wherever it has been fixed, it must remain there only.

This is a Geetaa term. It means to treat life and death, fame and defame, profit and loss, all alike. Who is Sthitpragya who treats all situations of life without any happiness and sorrow.

Sthool Shareer     see also    Body
Physical body. Five Gyaan Indriyaan, five Karm Indriyaan, five Bhoot, five subjects of Indriyaan, Buddhi, Ahankaar and mind - these 23 Tattwa (elements) jointly are called the body. This body, because of being born from Prakriti, is the function of the Prakriti, that is why the three Gun are called the cause of its origin.


Woman. Female.

Very kind. Another name of Kaartikeya.

Sudarshan Chakra
The Divine disc in Vishnu's hand.

Sudharmaa was the Divine court which Krishn specially got from Brahmaa Jee for Raajaa Ugrasen - Kans' father. It had some specialties. Whoever sat in that court, he did not feel any hunger, thirst, sorrow, Moh, old age and death there.

A woman who is married and whose husband is alive is called Suhaagin. These women are normally invited on most auspicious occasions.

Name of a book.

(1) Sumeru Mountain made of gold.  (2) There are 108 beads in Hindoo rosaries. But there is an extra bead which is up above all of them, that is called Meru or Sumeru bead. When one has finished counting 108 beads, he should not cross that Sumeru bead, rather turn the rosary again to count the beads. It is an essential part of the rosary. It shows the end of the 108 bead counting.

Sun     see    Soorya

(1) Sound.  Swar.   (2) Devtaa.


Divine cow who came out from the sea at the time of Saagar Manthan.

Swa     see also     Swa for other words with it
(1) Swa means "very own".   (2) It works as a prefix also, such as A, Nir, Sa etc to show one's ownership



Swaayambhoo Ling
Swaayambhoo Ling is that Ling which is not man made and has come out itself from the Earth. Such Ling re considered very auspicious and do not need any Sthaapanaa (establishment rituals). They can be worshipped as such.

(1) Food offered to Pitar (ancestors). Shraaddh. (2) Wife of Pitar.

Swapna     see     Sapanaa

Notes. In Indian music there are seven Swar (notes) - Shadaj, Rishabh, Gaandhaar, Madhyam, Pancham, Dhaivat, and Nishaad - all these Swar are said to be Brahm Roop because of being Brahm Vyanjak. Bhaagvat Puraan 3/12 says that these Swar appeared from his play.



(1) Healthy. 
(2) Swa means self, Sth means to establish. Thus Swasth means to establish in self. In the same way "Yogasth" (established in Yog), Dhyaanasth" (established in Dhyaan or meditation) words are.

Swasti Vaachan
Swasti means auspicious and Vaachan means speech, thus Swasti Vaachan means "auspicious speech". In this process some auspicious words, usually Mantra are spoken in the beginning of doing some important work. For example, if one buys a new car, he may invite Braahman to worship it and do Swasti Vaachan before driving himself, so that that machine does not trouble him and proves auspicious for him. The ceremony of Swasti Vaachan is described to be "a religious rite, preparatory to any important observance, in which the Braahman strew boiled rice on the ground, and invoke the blessings of the gods on the ceremony about to commence".

Self-existing, means God. There are Swaayamboo idols also in temples, they are self appeared.


There are four types of Creation taking birth in this world,  which are created according to one's Karm (actions) - (1) Udbhij - which are born by bursting out the Earth, such as trees and mountains, (2) Swedaj - which are born by sweat, such as bedbug etc, (3) Andaj - which are born from eggs, such as chickens, crocodiles, birds etc, and (4) Jaraayuj - which are born with Naal attached to them, such as human beings, calves, goats etc.

Syaamantak Mani
Name of a Mani (gem) which Satraajit got from Soorya Dev. He later gave it to Krishn. The legend has it that it is the same Mani which was later known as Kohinoor Heeraa.


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Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 10/17/13