Glossary - N-Z
Nandan Van is the garden in Indra Puree or Swarg and belongs to Indra. Supposed to be very beautiful.
The nine idols which Vaishnav people worship are of : (1) Vaasudev, (2)
Sankarshan, (3) Pradyumn, (4) Aniruddh, (5) Naaraayan, (6) Hayagreev, (7)
Varaah, (8) Narasinh, and (9) Brahmaa.
These were killed by Arjun. When Arjun went to Swarg Lok to take Divine
Astra from his father Indra, Indra asked him to kill Nivaatkavach Daitya,
because he himself could not kill them because they were bestowed by
Brahmaa Jee that they wouldn't be killed by Devtaa.
Restraining of mind, or discipline under some specific rules.
Bhaagvat Puraan, 8/4 says that Maalee, Sumaalee
and Maalyavaan were killed in this war, while
V-Raamaayan says that Sumaalee was killed when Raavan went to win Indra.
Maalyavaan ran away and became minister of Raavan.
This particular Ookhal, pestle, was very large, made of wood, to beat the
rice or any other grain, to separate it from its husk.
Here I remember Tulasee Daas Jee 's one couplet from his Maanas : "Jaakee
rahee bhaavanaa jaisee, Prabhu moorat tin dekhee taisee". Means people saw
Bhagvaan in the same Roop whatever feelings they had for Him i their hearts,
for example if there was a mother, she saw Him as her child, if some woman
wanted Him like her husband then she saw Him in that way, Yogee saw Him as
Jagadeeshwar, Kans saw Him as his Kaal (Mrityu, or death) etc. These
feelings are called Ras in Hindi Literature. There 10 Ras. So all feelings
can be divided under those 10 Ras. For more explanation see "
Paak Yagya is a minor sacrifice, such as the propitiation of a planet foreboding
evil, or worship offered to the inferior deities called Vishwaadev.
Five Tattwa (elements) are Prithvi (Earth), Aakaash (Ether or Sky), Agni
(Fire), Jal (Water) and Vaayu (Wind or Air). It is said that our body is
made up of these five elements.
A Parigh is a thick club mounted with iron. The comparison is very
feeble, for Bheem's mace, in the popular estimation, is much heavier and
stouter than any Parigh manufactured for human combatants.
A woman who is faithful to her husband by her heart, speech and actions,
is called Pativrataa. She is called Satee also. A Pativrataa woman has
lots of powers. Even Devtaa cannot harm her or her husband. Read
as how his wife's (Vrindaa) Paativrat protected him to be killed by even
In Hindu Dharm after the death of somebody his son and descendents give
Pind Daan through Braahman. It is believed that this goes to the
ancestors. Gayaa Jee (in Bihar) is very famous and appropriate for this.
A Poorn-Paatra is literally a large dish or a basket full of rice. It
should consist of 256 handfuls. Beyond a Poorn-Paatra, the Shoodra
should not give any other Dakshinaa in any of his sacrifices.
Repentance. Praayashchit are done when somebody commits any kind of sin or crime or unwanted
work. For example: Draupadee
abused not only Duryodhan but
also her great father-in-law
Dhritraashtra, which she should have never done at any cost. They had to do
its Praayashchit naturally by going Van for 13 years.
Paandu did Brahm Hatyaa for which he did Praayashchit willingly by going to Van.
Normally Praayshchit is the process to cleanse one's sinful mind.
Pushpak Vimaan is an air plane which flies with wish. It has all kinds of luxuries in it. It
can be made smaller and larger as needed. Brahmaa Jee gave this Vimaan to Kuber. Later when
Raavan won Kuber, he brought it from
there. Since then he was using it. When
Vibheeshan was crowned king, he offered this Vimaan to Raam. When
Raam had come to Ayodhyaa, He sent it
back to Kuber until needed.
In this kind of marriage, parents of the girl take the first son of their daughter and consider
him as their own son. This is normally done when the girl is the only daughter of her parents,
but it can happen in other cases also. Thus it is said - "This girl is married to this boy
according to Putrikaa Dharm."
There are four types of Rishi - Brahmarshi, Maharshi, Raajarshi and Devarshi. Brahmarshi are those Rishi wh know Brahm. Maharshi are those people who are higher than ordinary Rishi because they are
good at spiritual knowledge; Raajarshi are those kings who have attained Rishi like qualities, such
as Raajaa Janak, Seetaa's father is a well known Raajarshi; and Devarshi are hose Devtaa who live
like Rishi - Naarad Jee is one example.
Raajaa Raghu was a valorous king of Ikshwaaku Vansh. Raghu means "the fast
one" derived from Raghu's chariot driving abilities. His descendants were
called Raghuvanshee. The history of this dynasty is elaborated in Kaalidaas'
"Raghuvansh" drama. He was a great donor, it is said that no one returned
from his palace empty-handed. He is best known as great-grandfather of Raam. Raam
Himself is known as "Raaghav", Raghu-nandan", "Raghukul Naayak"
"Raghunaath", "Raghupati", Raaghavendra", indicating His
belonging to Raghu Dynasty.
[Bhaagvat Puraan 9/6]
The king is entitled to a sixth part of the merits acquired by his subjects. The total
merit of the king arising from renunciation is very great. Besides, the merit of every
kind of renunciation belongs to him in that way.
There are three types of Rin a human being has to pay before he dies -
1. Pitra Rin or Brahm Rin - Pitra Rin is of Brahmaa's Rin and is paid off by producing children.
2. Dev Rin - Dev Rin is of Bhagavaan Vishnu's Rin and is paid off by donations.
3. Rishi Rin - Rishi Rin is of Bhagavaan Shankar's Rin and is paid by acquiring and imparting knowledge.
They are eleven in number and all have three eyes Trishool their hands.
Who does Saadhanaa, who practices Praanaayaam and meditation.
Saadhanaa is the state of mind and body in which a man gets busy in austerity, controlling
his or her Indriyaan (11 Indriyaan) in a great disciplined way.
Saam, Daam, Dand, Bhed
These are four policies which helps to a person to be successful in his
job. Saam means influencing. One can take work by influencing somebody.
Or Daam; Daam means money. One can take work by giving money. Or Dand,
Dand means punishment. One can take work by punishing somebody. Or Bhed,
Bhed means dividing. One can be successful in his work by dividing
people - "Divide and rule".
Saamagree is a mixture of a few things which is used to offer Aahuti in
Havan (in sacred fire). It may include - white sesame seeds, Ghee,
sugar, rice, barley, some sweet smelling material.
Sacrifices are performed by the body, words and mind. A Braahman can
perform sacrifice by all the three. Kshatriya and Vaishya cannot perform
sacrifices by their bodies, they must employ some Braahman to do this.
However they can utter Mantra and perform mental sacrifices The Shoodra
alone cannot employ his body or utter mantra in sacrifices. The holy
sacrifice in his case is the mental sacrifice only. A mental sacrifice
is to resolve to give away in honor of the Devtaa or to Devtaa without
the aid of the Vedic ritual. The resolve must follow the actual gifts.
Samaadhi is a state of mind and body in which a person sits without
having a feeling of outside world. It is kind of meditation.
Sandhyaa word is originated from the word "Sandhi". Sandhi
means joint. There are two Sandhyaa everyday - dusk and dawn when day
and night meet. In Hindu Dharm these periods are very sacred. Several
actions are prohibited at this time and some actions are prescribed
Sandhyaa is a collection of some Mantra and actions, a Hindu should
perform daily two times - at dawn and dusk times. Because in Hindi language
these times are called "Sandhyaa" that is why that special
worship is also called "Sandhyaa".
Sankalp simply means "firm intent to do something". When one does Sankalp of
doing something, it becomes obligatory to do it. It is a kind of taking a vow. Often when
some donation is given, it is said formally that "I give this to you" with some
Mantra and rituals. That is also called Sankalp. Water, Kush grass, rice, and some other
ingredients, depending upon the type of Sankalp, are an essential part of most rituals
in Hindu Dharm.
Soldiers that have sworn to conquer or die. A full Akshauhinee army of
such soldiers was owned by Krishn. He gave them to Duryodhan to fight
for him. The story of Krishn's offering to Duryodhan the choice between
these soldiers on the one side, and himself sworn not to fight but only
to aid with his counsels on the other, is given in full in the Udyog
Parv. Duryodhan, from folly, accepted the army and who were all slain by
Once Pani named Daitya hid Prithvi in Rasaatal, Indra sent Saramaa named
his bitch to look for her. Daitya expressed their desire to extend
friendship with Saramaa, but Saramaa didn't agree for that and said to
them praying Indra - "Hataa Indren Panayah Shaydhwam" (Hey Pani Gan, You
sleep on Prithvi after being killed by Indra) That is why they were
always afraid of Indra.
Sarp and Naag
Naag are different from Sarp (snakes) as they have a very broad head.
Sarp as a Gift
Garud's mother Vinataa and Sarp's mother Kadru had enmity with one
another. So remembering mother's enmity, Garud Jee used to eat any Sarp
whatever he saw. At this all Sarp went to Brahmaa Jee. Then Brahmaa Jee
made this a rule that, the Sarp community will offer one Sarp to Garud
every Amaavasyaa. And this Sarp will come from a separate family each
Sat and Asat
These two words must be understood very well because they occur often in Hindu philosophy.
Sat is explained as "Real", such as "soul" or as real and permanent as
soul. Asat is reverse of this - the unreal, or the non-soul, and is not permanent (is temporary).
As unreal has no existence, the real can never have non-existence.
Satee See also Pativrataa
There was a tradition in olden India that after the death of the
husband, his wife used to immolate herself by sitting with him on the
pyre. That was called "to be Satee". Although it continued for
quite enough time, but in British times it was stopped. Originally it
was with the ill and wish of the woman, but after that the society used
to force the woman to immolate herself. So it was considered necessary to
500 chariots, as many elephants, 1,500 elephants, 2,500 soldiers
constitute a Senaa (army). Ten such Senaa constitute a Preetan, and ten
such Preetan constitute a Vaahinee. In common usage, Senaa, Vaahinee,
Pritan, Dhwajinee, Chamu, Akshauhinee, Varuhinee are used in the same sense.
MBH, Udyog Parv, Ch 157]
Shabd means "sound"; and Vedhee means "piercing"; so Shabd-Vedhee
means "which can pierce the sound. Here the "Shabd-Vedhee" Baan (arrow)
means whichever arrow is shot just by listening the sound. Only very few
skilled archer could shoot the arrow at their aim just by listening the
sound. Before Mahaabhaarat, King Dasharath (Raam's father) was one, in
MBH times Paandu, Arjun and Karn were like this. Although Dasharath
Paandu and arn shot their arrows at the wrong aims and they had to
suffer for that.
Shankar Jee's Bow
It is said that Shankar Jee's this bow was very old and very heavy
and it was kept in Janak Jee's palace for a long time. Once doing
cleaning Seetaa Jee moved it from its original place. When Janak Jee
came to know about this, at the same time he announced that whosoever
will aim at that bow, he will marry Seetaa to him. Seetaa's mother tried
to stop him taking such a vow but he didn't listen to it. When many very
mighty kings, including Raavan, could not even move that bow, then
Raajaa Janak and his wife got very worried and got scared too, that
maybe their daughter remains unmarried. But at that time Vishwaamitra
Jee came to rescue him and he ordered Raam to try it. Raam picked that
bow like a flower bow and as soon as He aimed on the bow, it broke being
Machines which can slay a century of warriors.
Puraan 5/6 says that his complexion is as white as ivory. Since
Lakshman and Balaraam were his incarnations and since both were of fair
complexion, it seems true that Shesh Jee should also be of fair
Snake Behaved With Mouse
A snake charmer had a snake in his box, by chance a mouse also entered it. Mouse got
scared. The snake said - "Don't be scared, you make a hole in the box then both
of us will get out of this box." First mouse did not believe him but later he
understood and he made a hole in the box. Snake immediately ate the mouse and got
out of the box.
When a Kshatriya boy marries a Braahman girl, their sons are known as
Soot. In olden days
Soot men were allowed only to serve kings: for example Raajaa Shaantanu's Saarathee (charioteer)
Adhirath was a Soot. There are two people famous by the name of Soot Jee
- one is Romharshan who was well known as Soot Jee, more than by his own
name; the second is Ugrashravaa who is so much known for telling Puraan
stories etc was also known as Soot Jee. Both were so much known by the
name Soot Jee that very few people know their real name as Romharshan
and Ugrashravaa respedctively.
According to Hindu Dharm there are four Varn in Hindu society - Braahman, Kshatriya,
Vaishya, and Shoodra in the hierarchy as given here. According to Dharm, a Braahman boy
can marry a Braahman, or Kshatriya or Vaishya girl. In the same way, a Kshatriya boy can
marry only Kshatriya or a Vaishya girl. When a Kshatriya boy marries a Braahman girl, the
son born from this wedlock is called "Soot-Putra". The whole Soot caste is born
in this way. All Soot were supposed to work for Raajaa as their menial workers. Karn's father
Adhirath was a Soot-Putra that is why he was only a charioteer of Raajaa Shaantanu and then of
Dhritraashtra. In the same way Sanjaya was also a Soot-Putra.
To become a Soot is not considered good in the society. Karn
was a Soot-Putra, that is why Drone
didn't accept him as his student and
Draupadee didn't marry him. There was a Muni who is called Soot Jee (he became famous
with this name only). Almost nobody knows his real name but he is famous for telling religious
stories and discourses. By the way his name is Ugrashravaa and he is the son of
Romeharshan who himself is known by the name of Soot Jee.
Swan means Hans. Because Bhagavaan delivered the knowledge in the form
of Hans (swan), that is why this Jeev (soul) is also referred to as Hans
and Eeshwar as Param-Hans (higher swan, or Swaamee of swans). When a man
dies, people say, "his Hans flew away", that means that his soul has
left the body.
Three Gun are Sat Gun, Rajo Gun and Tamo Gun.
Tolerating pain through justice. Means when you have done something
bad, crime, sin and if you are getting punishment for them, tolerating
that punishment is called Titikshaa.
Two Finger Game
There are some good explanations for the rope being short only by two
fingers. (1) Bhagvaan thought when I give my Darshan then it is only through Sat
Gun, so only one Gun should see me, one should not see me with all three Gun.
Since human beings have all Gun and they cannot be only Sato Gun, so they cannot
control Him with three Gun. (2) He thought where there are names and forms, then
there is a Bandhan (relationship, or connection, or bondage). I have no name, no
form, then how can I be tied so rope fell short by two fingers. (3) Yashodaa
used short, long, alone, together, all kinds of ropes to tie Him but all fell
short, because Bhagvaan do not discriminate in short, long, small, big. To show
these two concepts ropes fell short by two finger short.
Uddhaar means uplifting somebody spiritually. In Hindi Language the
Uddhaar word is used to free somebody from a Shaap, or to give Mukti
(salvation) because of some other reason, or to uplift a human being
from his present social or financial or psychological condition etc.
A human year is divided between two Ayan - Uttar+Ayan and Dakshin+Ayan
(North and South) - January to June, and July to December respectively. In
Hindu Religion Uttaraayan is considered an auspicious time to die. As Bheeshm
had the Var of Ichchhaa Mrityu, he kept himself alive till Uttaraayan period
came. To see the division of time on Earth read Time.
Vaaman Avataar is of Vishnu taken for the good of Devtaa. In this
Avataar He was born as Aditi's youngest son. As He was very short, only
52 fingers tall, his name is Vaaman. Vaaman is the word for Hindi
language number 52, that is why His Avataar is clled Vaaman Avataar.
Vaishya's Vaartaa Vritti is of four types - agriculture, trade, cow
protection and charging interest.
Vaarunee Devee is Varun Dev's daughter. She also came out of the Saagar
Manthan as one of the Ratn. Se was taken by Daitya. Once he sent her to
please Balaraam Jee in Brij when Balaraam Jee was there.
The name Vajra implies either a hard needle for boring diamonds and
gems, or the thunder-bolt. In both cases it mans very very strong and
hard. Indra's Vajra (thunder-bolt) was made by Rishi Dadheehi's bones.
In olden times when there was custom of Swayamvar, the girl was
given a garland and was given a round of the royal court where all
suitors were seated. She used to go to those boys one by one and was
introduced to everybody. Then whoever she liked to be her husband, she
put her that garland, called Varmaalaa or Jayamaalaa, in his neck. Then
they got married.
Varn means "Hindu Varn", and Sankar means "by joining". In Hindu
religion there are four Varn - Braahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shoodra. According to
Manu Smriti there are some rules for marriage among these Varn. When these rules are
broken, their descendents are called Varnsankar. For example when a Braahman girl
marries a Vaishya boy then their descendents will be called Varnsankar. See also
Vilom caste people are hose who are born out of Vilom Marriages.
When a high caste woman marries a lower caste man, it is called Vilom
marriage and their children are called Soot Putra or Putree or of Vilom
caste. Soot Jee's mother was a Braahman and his father Romharshan was a
Kshatriya, that is why he is called Soot Jee. In the same way Karn was
also a Soot-Putra, because he was a son of a Soot caste Adhirath.
There are nine Ras in Hindi literature:
1. Veebhats Ras - which generates the feelings of hatred
2. Vaatsalya Ras - which generates motherly feelings
3. Shringaar Ras - which generates the feelings of sexual love. In this
area there are two sides: when hero and heroine are meeting; and when
any of them is alone and remembering him or her. This loneliness
description when expressed in poetry is called Virah (=separation) Geet
(=song) means a song which is sung
when hero and heroine are separated
4. Veer Ras - which generates or describes the feelings of bravery and
5. Bhakti Ras - which generates the feelings of devotion to God
6. Raudra Ras - which generates the feelings of anger
7. Adbhut Ras - which describes wonderful things
8. Haasya Ras - which makes people laugh
9. Bhayaanak Ras - which describes horrid things
A sacrificial fire of the Shoodra. All sacrificial fires come from Vaishya's houses.
Vrishparvaa was the son of Kashyap and Danu. He was a Daitya as Danu
gave birth to Daitya. Shukraachaarya Jee was Daitya's Kul Guru. he had a
daughter named Sharmishthaa who went to Yayaati along with Devayaanee in
marriage as per
Vyooh is an array of troops in a certain form, such as Chakra Vyooh,
Garud Vyooh etc. This word has been used
many times during Mahaabhaarat war.
There are three types of Yog through which one can attain Bhagavaan -
Gyaan Yog, Karm Yog, and Bhakti Yog. There is one Yog Saadhanaa also to
Yojan see alo
1 Yojan = 4 Kos. 1 Kos = 2 and 1/4 miles.